^
8d
Paraneoplastic encephalomyeloradiculits with multiple autoantibodies against ITPR-1, GFAP and MOG: case report and literature review. (PubMed, Neurol Res Pract)
Our case and the literature review illustrate that multiple glial and neuronal autoantibodies can co-occur, that points to a paraneoplastic etiology, above all ovarian teratoma or thymoma. Clinical manifestation can be a mixture of typically associated syndromes, e.g. ataxia associated with anti-ITPR1 antibodies, encephalomyelitis with anti-GFAPα antibodies and longitudinal extensive myelitis with anti-MOG antibodies.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
|
Rituxan (rituximab)
8d
[VIRTUAL] SYNCHRONOUS THYMOMA AND RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE T-LYMPHOBLASTIC LYMPHOMA (CHEST 2021)
He was concurrently started on Cisplatin, Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin given the aggressive nature of the disease...His final diagnosis was concurrent thymoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma and treatment was transitioned to dose adjusted Etoposide, Prednisone, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide, and Doxorubicin (DA EPOCH)... Thymoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma should be included in the differential of aggressive chest tumors. Prompt multidrug chemotherapy is necessary to halt disease progression.
NOTCH1 (Notch 1)
|
cisplatin • doxorubicin hydrochloride • etoposide IV • prednisone • vincristine
8d
[VIRTUAL] RARE CASE OF SARCOMATOID CARCINOMA PRESENTING AS AN ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS (CHEST 2021)
To our knowledge, there are only a few cases reported of sarcomatoid carcinoma presenting as mediastinal neoplasms. Recognition of different clinical presentations should be imperative since missed diagnoses could progress to severe pulmonary and cardiac manifestations and medical awareness regarding the signs, symptoms, early identification, and early surgical resection can be associated with more favorable survival.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • VIM (Vimentin) • PAX8 (Paired box 8)
12d
Molecular predictors of response to pembrolizumab in thymic carcinoma. (PubMed, Cell Rep Med)
We find that expression of PDL1 and alterations in genes or pathways that correlated with PD-L1 expression (CYLD and BAP1) could be potential predictors for response or resistance to immunotherapy in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma. Our study provides insights into potential predictive markers/pathways to select patients with thymic carcinoma for anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
14d
Pembrolizumab in thymic cancer is safe and effective (DGHO 2021)
Several older chemotherapy studies and more recently small phase II studies with TKI (Sunitinib), mTOR inhibitors (Everolimus) and Somatostatin +/- Corticoids have shown (limited) therapeutic efficacy in these tumors. Anti-PD1 antibodies are safe and effective for the treatment of patients with thymic cancer. Patients with a history of severe autoimmune disease should not be considered for anti-PD-1 treatment. Incidence of immune-related adverse events may be somewhat higher than in other tumor entities.
PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Sutent (sunitinib) • everolimus
15d
Thymus pathology in myasthenia gravis with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies and concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A four-case series and literature review. (PubMed, Rom J Morphol Embryol)
In our series, MG and HT occurred simultaneously, or one of them was diagnosed before the other, raising some new questions regarding the immune mechanism of these two autoimmune diseases. Due to the heterogeneous morphological changes of the thymus that we found in this study, we can hypothesize that thymus is involved in the pathogenic mechanism of MG with anti-AChR-antibodies and concomitant HT development.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
16d
Characterization of molecular genetics and clinicopathology in thymic MALT lymphoma. (PubMed, Ann Hematol)
Thymic MALT lymphoma is a rare type of B cell malignancy with a female predominance and excellent clinical outcomes. Molecular aberrations involving the NF-κB pathway are frequent in thymic MALT lymphoma, suggesting that dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway is an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of thymic MALT lymphoma.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1) • CARD11 (Caspase Recruitment Domain Family Member 11) • TNFAIP3 (TNF Alpha Induced Protein 3) • CCND3 (Cyclin D3)
|
CD20 expression • BCL2 expression
20d
Current Landscape of Immunotherapy Trials Involving the Programmed Cell Death Protein 1/Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Axis in Intrathoracic Tumors. (PubMed, JTO Clin Res Rep)
The number of clinical trials investigating anti-PD-(L)1 agents in intrathoracic tumors has experienced a steep increase over the past decade with a notable upward trend for combination trials. To reduce duplicative research efforts and accelerate the development of effective immunotherapeutics, improved coordination among key stakeholders and the adoption of innovative trial designs will be vital.
Journal
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
21d
MXD3 as an onco-immunological biomarker encompassing the tumor microenvironment, disease staging, prognoses, and therapeutic responses in multiple cancer types. (PubMed, Comput Struct Biotechnol J)
Interestingly, MXD3 exhibited higher predictive power for response outcomes and overall survival of immune checkpoint blockade sub-cohorts than three of seven standardized biomarkers. Altogether, our study strongly suggests that MXD3 is an immune-oncogenic molecule and could serve as a biomarker for cancer detection, prognosis, therapeutic design, and follow-up.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
DBN1 (Drebrin 1)
22d
Journal
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19)
23d
Transcriptomic and Mutational Analysis Discovering Distinct Molecular Characteristics Among Chinese Thymic Epithelial Tumor Patients. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
The high expression of genes involved in thymus developmental processes suggests the potential association between tumorigenesis of TETs and dysregulation of developmental pathways. The high expression of PD-L1 in B2 and B3 thymomas support the potential application of immunotherapy on certain thymoma subtypes.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • NF1 (Neurofibromin 1) • FGF10 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 10)
|
PD-L1 overexpression
25d
Intrathymic Plasmablasts Are Affected in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis With Active Disease. (PubMed, Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm)
Our findings confirmed a correlation between increased frequency of intrathymic plasmablasts and disease activity before thymectomy. We postulate that activated intrathymic plasmablasts endow pathogenic capacity in MG.
Clinical • Journal
|
CXCR5 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 5)
30d
Paired-Box Gene 8 (PAX8) and Its Association With Epithelial Carcinomas. (PubMed, Cureus)
More studies are needed to test the possibility of using PAX8 as a possible target for managing endometrial carcinomas. In this article, we review the functions of the PAX8 gene, how its mutations lead to the development of certain epithelial carcinomas, how it can be used as a diagnostic or a prognostic marker, and its potential as a therapeutic target for these cancers.
Review • Journal
|
PAX8 (Paired box 8)
30d
The role of immunotherapy for management of advanced thymic epithelial tumors: a narrative review. (PubMed, Mediastinum)
The use of immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune disorders and those who have previously experienced immune-mediated toxicity is currently an area of active research. Various risk mitigation strategies are under evaluation in prospective clinical trials, including trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with thymic cancers.
Review • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
1m
Integrative pan-cancer analysis of MEK1 aberrations and the potential clinical implications. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
Mesothelioma (MESO) has the second highest alterations but has no therapy targets. This study provided a great and detailed interpretation of MEK1 expression, alterations and clinical implications in 32 types of cancer and reminded us to fill the gap in MEK1 research from a new perspective.
Clinical • Journal • Pan tumor
|
MAP2K1 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1)
|
MAP2K1 expression
1m
METTL3-dependent MALAT1 delocalization drives c-Myc induction in thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Clin Epigenetics)
This study highlighted METTL3 as a tumor promoter in Thymic tumors and c-MYC as a promising target to be exploited for the treatment of TET.
Journal
|
MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • MALAT1 (Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) • METTL3 (Methyltransferase Like 3)
|
MYC expression
|
JQ-1
1m
Pan-Cancer Analysis of PARP1 Alterations as Biomarkers in the Prediction of Immunotherapeutic Effects and the Association of Its Expression Levels and Immunotherapy Signatures. (PubMed, Front Immunol)
In addition, high PARP1 expression was positively associated with microsatellite instability event in COAD, KIRP, BRCA, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), LGG, READ, UCEC, SKCM and LUAD (P < 0.05). Our results highlight the significance of PARP1 alterations as pan-cancer predictive biomarkers for ICI treatment, and its expression levels seem to be correlated with the status of immunotherapy-associated signatures, thus may be a promising biomarker for predicting ICI response in several tumors.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • BRCA Biomarker • PARP Biomarker • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker • Pan tumor
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) • LAG3 (Lymphocyte Activating 3) • TIGIT (T Cell Immunoreceptor With Ig And ITIM Domains 2) • BRCA (Breast cancer early onset) • PARP1 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
PD-L1 expression • TMB-H • LAG3 expression • CTLA4 expression • PARP1 overexpression
1m
[VIRTUAL] B3 Thymoma With Clear Cell Features Masquerading as Metastatic Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney (CAP 2021)
Based on histologic appearance and p40 expression the tumor was diagnosed as thymoma, World Health Organization type B3. This presentation emphasizes the role of judicious use of immunohistochemistry in arriving at a definitive diagnosis in the context of malignancy with clear cell and ambiguous histopathologic features, despite a high index of suspicion for metastatic cancer.
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • CA9 (Carbonic anhydrase 9) • PAX8 (Paired box 8)
1m
Thrombolysis by PLAT/tPA increases serum free IGF1 leading to a decrease of deleterious autophagy following brain ischemia. (PubMed, Autophagy)
Interestingly, PLAT/tPA decreases autophagy to mediate neuroprotection by modulating the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathways both in vitro and in vivo. We identified IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor I receptor; a tyrosine kinase receptor) as the effective receptor and showed in vitro, in vivo and in human stroke patients and that PLAT/tPA is able to degrade IGFBP3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3) to increase IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) bioavailability and thus IGF1R activation.Abbreviations: AKT/protein kinase B: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; Hx: hypoxia; IGF1: insulin-like growth factor 1; IGF1R: insulin-like growth factor I receptor; IGFBP3: insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; Ka: Kainate; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation + reoxygentation; PepA: pepstatin A1; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PLAT/tPA: plasminogen activator, tissue; PPP: picropodophyllin; SCH77: SCH772984; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; Wort: wortmannin.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1) • IGFBP3 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3)
|
SCH772984 • picropodophyllin (AXL1717)
1m
Two Distinct Classes of Thymic Tumors in Patients with MEN1 Show LOH at the MEN1 Locus. (PubMed, Endocr Relat Cancer)
The lack of knowledge of its pathogenesis limits the ability to explore therapies directed at this tumor, which is the most aggressive of all MEN1-associated tumors. The goal of this study was to investigate the molecular events contributing to thymic tumor development in our well-characterized cohort of MEN1 patients by evaluating LOH at the MEN1 locus and by utilizing transcriptomics to identify possible molecular hits that may lead to tumor development and could be considered for targeted therapy.
Clinical • Journal
|
MEN1 (Menin 1)
1m
Diagnosis and management of pure red cell aplasia (PubMed, Rinsho Ketsueki)
Sirolimus and roxadustat may be effective for relapsed/refractory PRCA with renal insufficiency and anti-erythropoietin antibody-mediated PRCA, respectively. Some gene mutations were detected in certain patients who had acquired PRCA, and the identification of STAT3 mutations may be useful in PRCA management. A prospective cohort study PRCA2016 has been ongoing in Japan, and novel discoveries provide hope for improving the outcome in patients with PRCA.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
STAT3 (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3)
|
STAT3 mutation
|
sirolimus • Evrenzo (roxadustat)
1m
Comparative clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of micronodular thymoma and micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid stroma. (PubMed, J Clin Pathol)
MNTs and MNCs are rare and less aggressive forms of thymic tumours and can be differentially diagnosed by immunohistochemistry.
Clinical • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule)
1m
Antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals with various Inborn Errors of Immunity. (PubMed, J Allergy Clin Immunol)
Vaccinating IEI patients is safe, but immunogenicity is impacted by certain therapies and gene defects. These data may guide counseling IEI patients on prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and need for subsequent boosts.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD19 (CD19 Molecule)
|
Rituxan (rituximab)
1m
Incident Cancer Risk and Mutation Signatures Among Elderly MUTYH Carriers: Analysis of Population-Based and Genomic Cohorts (ACG 2021)
Incident cancer events were obtained from a large population-based, prospective cohort derived from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial, with enrollment from 2010 through 2014, and follow-up until June 2017 (mean 4.5 years)... The demographics between MUTYH carriers and non-carriers were well matched. 1,328 cancers developed among sequenced study participants, among which 177 were CRCs. Among male MUTYH carriers, we observed an increased risk for cancer (HR 1.67, 95% CI [1.04, 2.68]; P = 0.035) and colorectal cancer (HR 3.53, 95% CI [1.42, 8.78]; P = 0.007).
Clinical
|
MUTYH (MutY homolog)
|
aspirin
1m
Aggresome-Autophagy Associated Gene HDAC6 Is a Potential Biomarker in Pan-Cancer, Especially in Colon Adenocarcinoma. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
HDAC6 is differentially expressed in pan-cancers and plays an essential role in tumor metabolism and immunity. HDAC6 holds promise as a tumor potential prognostic marker, especially in colon cancer.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • Pan tumor
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • HDAC6 (Histone Deacetylase 6)
2ms
Lipocalin-2: Structure, function, distribution and role in metabolic disorders. (PubMed, Biomed Pharmacother)
The precise role of LCN-2 in the modulation of insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism is still unclear. This review explores the structure of LCN-2, tissue distribution, and its interaction with important metabolic pathways.
Review • Journal
|
LCN2 (Lipocalin-2) • MMP9 (Matrix metallopeptidase 9)
2ms
Pan-cancer analysis of the oncogenic role of discs large homolog associated protein 5 (DLGAP5) in human tumors. (PubMed, Cancer Cell Int)
Taken together, our unpresented pan-cancer analysis of DLGAP5 provides a relatively integrative understanding of the oncogenic role of DLGAP5 in various tumors. DLGAP5 may prompt HCC cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis. All of these provides solid basement and will promote more advanced understanding the role of DLGAP5 in tumorigenesis and development from the perspective of clinical tumor samples and cells.
Journal • Pan tumor
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] Thymoma exhibiting pleural effusion at disease progression: case report (ECP 2021)
Thymomas can rarely give rise to pleural effusions. Diagnosis can be challenging. Detailed review of the patient's personal history and immunocytochemistry remains crucial to clarify differential diagnosis.
Clinical • Pleural effusion
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19) • PAX8 (Paired box 8)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] Pericardic thymolipoma – case report (ECP 2021)
Thymolipoma is usually diagnosed in the second or third decade of life but considering the slow growth and late symptoms, due to compression, it may represent an incidental finding in autopsy. It may be related to systemic diseases, such as Grave’s disease, aplastic anaemia, and other autoimmune disorders. Despite their rare occurrence, thymolipomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of me- diastinal lipoma or liposarcoma, thymic hyperplasia, teratoma, and regressed thymoma.
Clinical • IO biomarker
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • VIM (Vimentin) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
BCL2 expression • VIM expression
2ms
[VIRTUAL] Thymic carcinoma metastasizing to the brain: a case report (ECP 2021)
It is extremely rare and only 45 such cases have been re- ported in the literature, associated with worse prognosis and short surviv- al. We should always consider it in the differential diagnosis of intracra- nial lesions of unknown primary.
Clinical
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • CDX-2 • VIM (Vimentin) • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • MUC5AC (Mucin 5AC) • CHGA (Chromogranin A) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] A case report: micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma, and thymic cysts (ECP 2021)
Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma is a very rare type of thymoma showing a similar pattern but varied morphology and immunophenotype of tumour cells. Although it is known to be associate with a favourable outcome, more cases and longer follow-up periods are needed.
Clinical
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • KRT19 (Keratin 19) • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] Combined thymic carcinoma developing in the lung; a rare case report (ECP 2021)
The combined thymic carcinoma is a rare entity with an ambiguous etiological background. However, the presence of thymoma in patients could be demonstrated as a predisposing risk factor for further development of thymic carcinoma. In conclusion, histopathological ex- amination and clinical management of these tumours should be executed carefully because these lesions may co-exist in the spectrum of differen- tiation and regional or distant recurrence may occur.
Clinical
|
CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1) • CD19 (CD19 Molecule) • PAX8 (Paired box 8)
|
CD20 positive
2ms
[VIRTUAL] T Lymphoblastic lymphoma: histopathological evaluation of 49 cases (ECP 2021)
T lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare disease which repre- sents about 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurring in late child- hood adolescent and young adult men. Mediastinal mass, pleural and pericardial effusions are the major clinical presentations of T lymphoblas- tic lymphomas. The main differential diagnosis involves type B1 thymoma with prominent immature T-cells.
Clinical
|
CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] A case of mucin producing type AB thymoma (ECP 2021)
A case of otherwise typical type AB thymoma with focal mucinous epithelium is presented. Mucin production can be observed in thymic adenocarcinomas. The present tumour was a typical thymoma and mucin production did not create any diagnostic problems.
Clinical
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • CHGA (Chromogranin A) • SYP (Synaptophysin)
2ms
[VIRTUAL] Thymic carcinoma in a patient with concurrent breast cancer (ECP 2021)
Thymic carcinoma accounts for 0,06% of thymic malignan- cies. These patients can develop other tumours (mostly lymphomas, sar- comas and gastrointestinal cancers). Co-existence of thymic carcinoma and breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare.
Clinical
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • MUC1 (Mucin 1) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
2ms
Anticancer bispecific antibody R&D advances: a study focusing on research trend worldwide and in China. (PubMed, J Hematol Oncol)
The developed countries in America and Europe are leading the trend of bsAbs research. Anticancer bsAbs clinical research in China is booming and chasing after the world trend.
Journal
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
2ms
Clinical • New P2 trial
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • lenvatinib
2ms
Arginase Pathway Markers of Immune-Microenvironment in Thymic Epithelial Tumors and Small Cell Lung Cancer. (PubMed, Clin Lung Cancer)
Arginase-1 was not detectable in TETs and SCLC. Expression of markers in the adenosine pathway were present in both TETs and SCLC. CD39 expression in tumor cells may identify subsets of patients with TETs with an unfavorable prognosis.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2) • CD73 (5'-Nucleotidase Ecto) • ENTPD1 (Ectonucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase 1) • FUT4 (Fucosyltransferase 4)
|
CD73 expression
2ms
Whole-exome sequencing and human leukocyte antigen analysis in familial myasthenia gravis with thymoma: Case report and literature review. (PubMed, Clin Neurol Neurosurg)
Previous genetic studies on familial MG have identified ENOX1 and IFNGR1 as candidate genes in patients without thymoma, whereas no studies have identified candidate genes in patients with thymoma. To explore causative genes, it may be necessary to consider whether the genetic background differs between patients with and without thymoma in familial autoimmune MG.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
ENO1 (Enolase 1)
2ms
MiR-149-3p can improve the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells via targeting AKT1. (PubMed, Kaohsiung J Med Sci)
In addition, AKT1 siRNA enhanced the cell viability and proliferation of hADSCs and increased mineral calcium deposition and ALP activity, resulting in higher expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes, which was reversed by miR-149-3p inhibition. The miR-149-3p can increase the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes by targeting AKT1 and thereby enhance the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs.
Journal
|
MIR149 (MicroRNA 149)
2ms
Antitumor effect of dimethyl itaconate on thymic carcinoma by targeting LDHA-mTOR axis. (PubMed, Life Sci)
Our findings demonstrate that DI is a novel potential strategy for thymic carcinoma treatment.
Journal
|
LDHA (Lactate dehydrogenase A) • mTOR (Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase)
2ms
Tumor immunity is related to F-FDG uptake in thymic epithelial tumor. (PubMed, Cancer Med)
F-FDG accumulation was closely associated with the expression of PD-L1/PD-L2, which, in turn, was correlated with glucose metabolism and hypoxia. PD-L1/PD-L2 could affect the glucose metabolism and hypoxia in thymic tumor cells.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • KDR (Kinase insert domain receptor) • HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) • PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2) • VEGFC (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C)
|
PD-L1 expression • KDR expression • HIF1A expression
2ms
YAP1-MAML2 Fusion as a Diagnostic Biomarker for Metaplastic Thymoma. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
Our study explored the genetic alterations in epithelioid and spindle cell components in metaplastic thymoma. Furthermore, YAP1-MAML2 gene rearrangements emerged as a potential diagnostic biomarker helpful for distinguishing metaplastic thymoma from type A and micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma.
Journal
|
YAP1 (Yes associated protein 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
3ms
New P2 trial
|
PIAS4 (Protein Inhibitor Of Activated STAT 4)
|
Cyramza (ramucirumab)
3ms
Lower BAFF Levels in Myasthenic Patients Treated with Glucocorticoids. (PubMed, Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz))
In multiple linear regression model, recent CS therapy and male sex were found to be independent predictors of lower BAFF levels. Serum BAFF level is decreased in patients treated with CS, which may suggest inhibiting influence of CS on BAFF-a potential mechanism contributing to the effectiveness of such therapy.
Clinical • Journal
|
TNFA (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha)
3ms
Thymoma-associated autoimmune encephalitis with positive Titin antibodies: A case report. (PubMed, J Neuroimmunol)
This case reflects the complexity of the immune relationship among autoimmune encephalitis, Titin antibodises and thymoma. Titin antibody may have a certain guiding significance for the treatment and prognosis of autoimmune encephalitis.
Clinical • Journal
|
TTN (Titin)
3ms
CX-072 (pacmilimab), a Probody PD-L1 inhibitor, in advanced or recurrent solid tumors (PROCLAIM-CX-072): an open-label dose-finding and first-in-human study. (PubMed, J Immunother Cancer)
Pacmilimab can be administered safely at the RP2D of 10 mg/kg every 14 days. At this dose, pacmilimab had a low rate of immune-mediated toxicity and showed signs of antitumor activity in patients not selected for high PD-L1 expression.
Clinical • P1 data • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4)
|
PD-L1 expression • TMB-H • PD-L1 overexpression
|
pacmilimab (CX-072)
3ms
Development of thymic tumor in [LSL:Kras; Pdx1-CRE] mice, an adverse effect associated with accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
Histological and genetic analyses of this massive thymus enabled us (1) to characterize it as a highly proliferative thymic lymphoma and (2) to detect the unexpected recombination of the Lox-STOP-Lox cassette upstream Kras allele and subsequent KRAS protein expression in all cells composing thymic masses. Finally, we highlighted that development of such thymic tumor was associated with accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis, immune compartment disorganization, and in some cases, lung malignancies.
Preclinical • Journal • Adverse events
|
KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase)
|
KRAS mutation
3ms
Frequent Genetic Alterations and Their Clinical Significance in Patients With Thymic Epithelial Tumors. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
Gene mutation profiles between TCs+type B3 TETs and non-TCs+type B3 TETs were significantly different. The presence of TP53 mutations was more frequent in TCs+type B3 TETs than in non-TCs+type B3 TETs, which was associated with a worse prognosis.
Clinical • Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A)
|
TP53 mutation
3ms
The Expression of PD-L1 and B7-H4 in Thymic Epithelial Tumor and Its Relationship With Tumor Immune-Infiltrating Cells. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
PD-L1 and B7-H4 were related to the aggressiveness of TET and their expression level can indicate the suppressive immune microenvironment. Combined with FOXP3 and CD163, PD-L1 and B7-H4 can indicate a poor prognosis of TET.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • CD163 (CD163 Molecule) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression • FOXP3 expression
3ms
Anti-striational antibodies detected in a patient with late-onset myasthenia gravis suffering from severe bradycardia: a case report (PubMed, Rinsho Shinkeigaku)
The arrhythmia resolved after strong immunosuppressive treatment, and anti-striational antibodies, including anti-muscular voltage-gated potassium channel-complex (Kv1.4) antibody and anti-titin antibody, were subsequently detected. This case implies the possible involvement of anti-striational antibodies in bradycardia.
Clinical • Journal
|
TTN (Titin)
3ms
Thymic Adenocarcinoma with Positivity for Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 and a BRAF V600E Mutation: A Case Report. (PubMed, Intern Med)
A sequencing analysis revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy and was in good health without recurrence at five months after resection.
Clinical • Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1)
|
BRAF V600E • BRAF V600
3ms
Pembrolizumab and Sunitinib Malate in Treating Participants With Refractory Metastatic or Unresectable Thymic Cancer (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=40, Recruiting, Dwight Owen | Trial completion date: Dec 2020 --> Dec 2021 | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2020 --> Dec 2021
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Sutent (sunitinib)
3ms
Survival and Functional Immune Reconstitution After Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Atm-Deficient Mice. (PubMed, Front Immunol)
Our data provided evidence that haploidentical HSCT could be a feasible strategy for A-T, possibly even if the donor is heterozygous for ATM. However, this basic research cannot substitute any research in humans.
Preclinical • Journal
|
ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase) • THY1 (Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
3ms
Norcantharidin counteracts acquired everolimus resistance in renal cell carcinoma by dual inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and complex 2 pathways in Vitro. (PubMed, Anticancer Drugs)
Mechanically, NCTD repressed both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways as well as downstream molecular signaling pathways, such as p-4EBP1, p-AKT, HIF1α and HIF2α. Our findings provide sound evidence that combination of NCTD and everolimus is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating RCC and overcoming everolimus resistance by dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2.
Preclinical • Journal
|
MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) • EPAS1 (Endothelial PAS domain protein 1) • EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1)
|
everolimus
3ms
Potential Prognostic Value of Preoperative Leukocyte Count, Lactate Dehydrogenase and C-Reactive Protein in Thymic Epithelial Tumors. (PubMed, Pathol Oncol Res)
In summary, higher CRP associated with carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors, while LDH increased primarily in neuroendocrine tumors suggesting that biomarker analysis should be performed in a histology specific manner. Importantly, preoperative serum LDH might be a prognosticator in thymic carcinoma and may help to risk stratify surgically treated patients in multimodal treatment regimens.
Journal
|
CRP (C-reactive protein)
3ms
Phase-II Study of Lu177DOTATOC in Adults With STTR(+)Pulmonary, Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma, Unknown Primary, Thymus NETs (PUTNET), or Any Other Non-.GEP-NET. (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=50, Recruiting, Excel Diagnostics and Nuclear Oncology Center | Trial completion date: Mar 2022 --> Jul 2024 | Trial primary completion date: Mar 2021 --> Jul 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
SSTR (Somatostatin Receptor)
|
SSTR positive
|
Solucin (177Lu-edotreotide)
4ms
miRNA Let-7a-5p targets RNA KCNQ1OT1 and Participates in Osteoblast Differentiation to Improve the Development of Osteoporosis. (PubMed, Biochem Genet)
RNA KCNQ1OT1 up-regulation weakened the promoting effect of miRNA let-7a-5p up-regulation on osteoblast differentiation. MiRNA let-7a-5p up-regulation can target to reduce RNA KCNQ1OT1 and promote osteoblast differentiation, thereby improving the development of osteoporosis.
Journal
|
COL1A1 (Collagen, type I, alpha 1) • KCNQ1OT1 (KCNQ1 Opposite Strand/Antisense Transcript 1) • MIR497 (MicroRNA 497)
4ms
Identification and Characterization of Non-Coding RNAs in Thymoma. (PubMed, Med Sci Monit)
Our network analysis of the lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA regulation axes identified a cluster of miRNAs upregulated in thymomas, that can trigger the expression of target protein-coding genes, and lead to the disruption of several biological pathways, including the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that overexpression of this miRNA cluster activates PI3K-Akt, FoxO, HIF-1, and Rap-1 signaling pathways, suggesting pathway inhibitors may be therapeutic candidates against thymoma.
Journal
|
HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) • KMT2A (Lysine Methyltransferase 2A) • AFAP1-AS1 (AFAP1 Antisense RNA 1) • MCM4 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • AFAP1 (Actin Filament Associated Protein 1)
4ms
Downregulation of DNMT3a expression by RNAi and its effect on NF-κBs expression of thymic epithelial cells. (PubMed, Immunol Lett)
Our study reveals the DNMT3a-NF-κB pathway has a major effect on MG, and can be used as a marker for diagnosis as well as a target for MG treatment.
Journal
|
DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 1) • IKZF1 (IKAROS Family Zinc Finger 1)
4ms
NUT carcinoma of the lung. (PubMed, Semin Diagn Pathol)
The prognosis of NUT carcinoma remains very poor, with a median survival of 6.7 months, and 1- and 2-year overall survival rates of 30% and 19%, respectively. NUT carcinoma is often refractory to conventional chemotherapy, but ifosfamide-based regimens or BET inhibitors could represent promising therapies.
Review • Journal
|
NUTM1 (NUT Midline Carcinoma Family Member 1)
|
ifosfamide
4ms
Bioinformatics analysis of the key potential ceRNA biomarkers in human thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore))
Our study revealed that ceRNAs modules might exert a crucial role in the progression of TETs. The mRNA associated-ceRNA modules could effectively predict the prognosis of TETs, which might be the potential prognostic and therapeutic markers for TETs patients.
Journal
|
NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 2 Group F Member 1) • MIR141 (MicroRNA 141) • MIR31 (MicroRNA 31) • LINC00665 (Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665)
4ms
[VIRTUAL] A 3-proteomic score to improve the clinical management of childhood liver cancer (EASL-ILC 2021)
We identified a prognostic 3-protein score that could be easily applied at the clinical practice to improve clinical management of childhood liver cancer and other adult tumors.
Clinical
|
CRY1, Cryptochrome Circadian Regulator 1,
4ms
Thymic carcinoma with Lynch syndrome or microsatellite instability, a rare entity responsive to immunotherapy. (PubMed, Eur J Cancer)
This analysis highlights the usefulness of MSI testing in patients with TC. The observation of cases of TC occurring in patients with Lynch syndrome and the unexpected homogeneity of gene alterations support further investigation.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • Microsatellite instability • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • MLH1 (MutL homolog 1)
|
TMB-H • MLH1 mutation
|
Bavencio (avelumab) • Inlyta (axitinib)
4ms
Expression patterns for Bcl-2, EMA, β-catenin, E-cadherin, PAX8, and MIB1 in thymomas. (PubMed, Mod Pathol)
PAX8 showed less consistent nuclear staining than p63 and was only widely expressed in 55.7% of cases. Bcl-2 may serve as a useful marker to separate spindle cell thymomas (Type A and AB) from the other types, and the MIB1 proliferation index may be of use to differentiate type B2 from type B3 thymoma.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
BCL2 expression • CDH1 expression
4ms
Genomic clustering analysis identifies molecular subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors independent of World Health Organization histologic type. (PubMed, Oncotarget)
Sensitivity to nelfinavir was due to the IU-TAB-1 cell line's gain-of function (GOF) mutation in PIK3CA and amplification of genes observed from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), including AURKA, ERBB2, KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFB, that are known upregulate AKT, while resistance to everolimus was primarily driven by upregulation of downstream signaling of KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFB in the presence of mTORC1 inhibition. We present a novel molecular classification of TETs independent of WHO histologic subtype, which may be used for preclinical validation studies of potential candidate therapeutics of interest for this rare disease.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • PDGFRA (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • AURKA (Aurora kinase A) • PDGFB (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Subunit B)
|
PIK3CA mutation
|
everolimus • Viracept (nelfinavir)
4ms
Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the thymus; a rare type of thymic carcinoma. Case Report. (PubMed, SN Compr Clin Med)
CA19-9 is a biomarker for disease status. Future reports should help elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
Cancer antigen 19-9
4ms
Small interfering-high mobility group A2 attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in thymic cancer cells via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (PubMed, Oncol Lett)
After treatment with si-HMGA2 in combination with Wnt/β-catenin agonists (SKL2001) or inhibitors (XAV-939), EMT was respectively enhanced or inhibited in IU-TAB-1 cells. Overall, si-HMGA2 may attenuate EMT in thymic cancer cells and the mechanism may be related to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Journal
|
CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • VIM (Vimentin) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
|
CDH1 expression • VIM expression
|
XAV-939
4ms
si-MALAT1 attenuates thymic cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via the miR-145-5p/HMGA2 pathway. (PubMed, Oncol Lett)
miR-145-5p inhibited the luciferase activity of IU-TAB-1 cells transfected with the MALAT1 or HMGA2 3' untranslated region. In conclusion, si-MALAT1 significantly attenuated cell proliferation and apoptosis via the miR-145-5p/HMGA2 pathway in thymic cancer cells.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CCND1 (Cyclin D1) • BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) • MALAT1 (Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
|
BCL2 expression • CCND1 expression • BAX expression
4ms
Identification of Molecular Characteristics and New Prognostic Targets for Thymoma by Multiomics Analysis. (PubMed, Biomed Res Int)
LIPE may be the key genes affecting prognosis of thymoma. Our findings will help to elucidate the pathogenesis and therapeutic targets of thymoma.
Journal
|
KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor 4)
5ms
CD36 deficiency ameliorates drug-induced acute liver injury in mice. (PubMed, Mol Med)
Our data demonstrated that CD36 deficiency ameliorated APAP-induced acute liver injury and inflammatory responses by decreasing JNK activation. CD36 might serve as a new target to reduce acute liver injury.
Preclinical • Journal
|
CD36 (thrombospondin receptor) • HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) • IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta) • MAPK8 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8)
|
paracetamol
5ms
Single Amino Acid Deletion at N-Terminus of the Target Antigen in DNA Vaccine Induces Altered CD8 T Cell Responses against Tumor Antigen. (PubMed, Vaccines (Basel))
These results indicate that a single amino acid deletion at N-terminus of the target antigen in a DNA vaccine leads to a different immunological outcome. The small modification of the target antigen in the DNA vaccine might improve its efficacy against tumor or infectious diseases.
Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • IFNG (Interferon, gamma)
5ms
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1: a novel prognostic biomarker that predicts favourable patient survival in cancer. (PubMed, Cancer Cell Int)
MPC1 is a novel cancer biomarker and potentially powerful therapeutic target for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Further studies aimed at slowing cancer progression are in progress.
Clinical • Review • Journal • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA (Breast cancer early onset)
5ms
STAT3 activation in thymic epithelial tumors: correlation with cyclin D1, JAK3, and clinical behavior. (PubMed, Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg)
STAT3 activation may promote cyclin D1 overexpression in thymic epithelial tumors, and intracellular signaling pathways other than JAK3 may be involved in STAT3 activation. STAT3 activation, cyclin D1 overexpression, and JAK3 activation are biomarker candidates that indicate clinically poor prognosis.
Clinical • Journal
|
CCND1 (Cyclin D1) • JAK3 (Janus Kinase 3) • STAT3 (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3)
|
CCND1 overexpression
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Oncogenic Runx1–Myc axis in p53-deficient thymic lymphoma. (EACR 2021)
This concept seemingly contrasts with the molecular pathology of osteosarcoma, where Runx3 plays the pivotal oncogenic role. It does support, however, the functional redundancy of aberrant Runx proteins leading to Myc dysregulation in cancer, and thus provides a clinical rationale for targeting the Runx family in p53 -deficient malignancies.
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • RUNX1 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 1) • RUNX3 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 3)
|
TP53 deletion
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Oncogenic Runx1–Myc axis in p53-deficient thymic lymphoma. (EACR 2021)
This concept seemingly contrasts with the molecular pathology of osteosarcoma, where Runx3 plays the pivotal oncogenic role. It does support, however, the functional redundancy of aberrant Runx proteins leading to Myc dysregulation in cancer, and thus provides a clinical rationale for targeting the Runx family in p53 -deficient malignancies.
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • RUNX1 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 1) • RUNX3 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 3)
|
TP53 deletion
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Oncogenic Runx1–Myc axis in p53-deficient thymic lymphoma. (EACR 2021)
This concept seemingly contrasts with the molecular pathology of osteosarcoma, where Runx3 plays the pivotal oncogenic role. It does support, however, the functional redundancy of aberrant Runx proteins leading to Myc dysregulation in cancer, and thus provides a clinical rationale for targeting the Runx family in p53 -deficient malignancies.
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • RUNX1 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 1) • RUNX3 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 3)
|
TP53 deletion
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Oncogenic Runx1–Myc axis in p53-deficient thymic lymphoma. (EACR 2021)
This concept seemingly contrasts with the molecular pathology of osteosarcoma, where Runx3 plays the pivotal oncogenic role. It does support, however, the functional redundancy of aberrant Runx proteins leading to Myc dysregulation in cancer, and thus provides a clinical rationale for targeting the Runx family in p53 -deficient malignancies.
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • RUNX1 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 1) • RUNX3 (RUNX Family Transcription Factor 3)
|
TP53 deletion
5ms
Significance of tumor mutation burden and immune infiltration in thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Thorac Cancer)
In this study, TETs patients with high TMB had a significantly poor prognosis and an immune-related gene signature was found to effectively evaluate the long-term prognosis.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • FASLG (Fas ligand)
|
PD-L1 expression • TMB-H • TMB-L
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Modulation of CD8+ T cell antitumor function by an immune inhibitory molecule sushi domain containing 2 (IMMUNOLOGY 2021)
Mechanistically, we found that SUSD2 negatively regulated IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)-mediated generation of Gzmb and IFN-g in CD8+ T cells. In sum, our results identify SUSD2 as a new immune inhibitory molecule which can be targeted to augment CD8+ T cell antitumor response.
IO biomarker
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • IL2RA (Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha) • GZMB (Granzyme B)
5ms
[VIRTUAL] Modulation of CD8+ T cell antitumor function by an immune inhibitory molecule sushi domain containing 2 (IMMUNOLOGY 2021)
Mechanistically, we found that SUSD2 negatively regulated IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)-mediated generation of Gzmb and IFN-g in CD8+ T cells. In sum, our results identify SUSD2 as a new immune inhibitory molecule which can be targeted to augment CD8+ T cell antitumor response.
IO biomarker
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • IL2RA (Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha) • GZMB (Granzyme B)
5ms
Immunodeficiency and Thymoma: A Case Report on Good Syndrome, a Diagnosis Frequently Missed and Forgotten. (PubMed, Am J Case Rep)
Intravitreal ganciclovir was administered in addition to intravenous systemic ganciclovir, which resulted in severe neutropenic sepsis...Clinical suspicion should be heightened in at-risk patients who present with multiple bouts of infection, particularly in thymoma cases with adult-onset immune dysfunction. It is of paramount importance to follow up those patients with annual clinical reviews and immunodeficiency screening.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
Cytovene (ganciclovir)
5ms
A tolerability and safety analysis of adding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to local radiotherapy in a case series of seven patients with thoracic cancer. (PubMed, Ann Palliat Med)
The combination therapy of radiotherapy and GM-CSF (200 µg subcutaneously q.o.d) is tolerable and safe. Further studies are warranted to confirm the effects and optimal total GM-CSF injection doses in the combination of radiotherapy in thoracic cancer patients.
Journal
|
CSF2 (Colony stimulating factor 2)
5ms
Mutational landscape of thymic epithelial tumors in a Chinese population: insights into potential clinical implications. (PubMed, Gland Surg)
Our study provided a comprehensive genetic alteration view on the largest Chinese cohort of TETs to date. The results identified different genomic mutational profiles of Ts, TCs, and TNETs, and analyzed potential druggable biomarkers with clinical implications in Chinese TET patients, which provided the evidence for precision medicine of rare TET patients.
Clinical • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A)
|
PD-L1 expression • TP53 mutation • CDKN2A mutation • CDKN2B mutation
6ms
Ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to thymic neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review. (PubMed, Rev Endocr Metab Disord)
In conclusion, thymic NETs causing ectopic CS are presented as aggressive hypercortisolism in the middle aged population. The disease is commonly extended at diagnosis and persists or recurs after surgery in most patients with a short term high mortality.
Review • Journal
|
SSTR (Somatostatin Receptor)
6ms
Thymidine decreases the DNA damage and apoptosis caused by tumor-treating fields in cancer cell lines. (PubMed, Genes Genomics)
These results demonstrated that thymidine can inhibit the TTFields-caused DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that combining TTFields and conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, may enhance prognosis and decrease side effects compared with those of TTFields or conventional treatments alone.
Preclinical • Journal • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen) • GNRP (Ras-Specific Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1)
|
BRCA1 expression • PCNA expression
6ms
Thymoquinone Is a Multitarget Single Epidrug That Inhibits the UHRF1 Protein Complex. (PubMed, Genes (Basel))
In this review, we highlight TQ as a potential multitarget single epidrug that functions by targeting the UHRF1/DNMT1/HDAC1/G9a complex. We also speculate on the possibility that TQ might specifically target UHRF1, with subsequent regulatory effects on other partners.
Review • Journal
|
DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) • HDAC1 (Histone Deacetylase 1)
6ms
A Panel of Five-lncRNA Signature as a Potential Biomarker for Predicting Survival in Gastric and Thoracic Cancers. (PubMed, Front Genet)
Functional enrichment analysis showed that these five lncRNAs are involved in known biological pathways related to cancer pathology. In conclusion, the five-lncRNA signature can be used as a prognostic marker to promote the diagnosis and treatment of GC and thymic malignancies.
Journal • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA (Breast cancer early onset)
6ms
DUET-2: A Study of XmAb®20717 in Subjects With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=154, Recruiting, Xencor, Inc. | Trial completion date: Mar 2021 --> Feb 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2020 --> Feb 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
MSI-H/dMMR • HER-2 negative
|
vudalimab (XmAb717)
6ms
Thymic adenocarcinoma accompanied by type A thymoma and pulmonary minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and harboring distinct gene alterations: A case report. (PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore))
Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) was positive in this case of thymic adenocarcinoma, which indicated that a thymic adenocarcinoma with TTF-1-positive may not necessarily be a metastasis of lung or thyroid adenocarcinoma. The positive staining of CD5 and CD117 can help us to confirm the thymic origin. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that these tumors harbored different mutations. The thymic adenocarcinoma and type A thymoma both had the mutation of KMT2A, but the mutation sites were different. KMT2A mutation may be a common genetic change in thymic tumorigenesis. The genetic alterations disclosed in this study will help expand the understanding of thymic tumors.
Clinical • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • KMT2A (Lysine Methyltransferase 2A) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1)
|
KMT2A mutation • MLL mutation
6ms
[VIRTUAL] Cell-free circulating tumor DNA (cfDNA) analysis of advanced thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). (ASCO 2021)
This study confirms that advanced stage TETs shed tumor DNA into the circulation that can be picked up in the majority of patients, using a solid tumor platform, despite the low TMB typically observed in these tumors . This assay can potentially be used to monitor response to therapy . A more targeted gene panel, enriched for genes commonly mutated in TETs (e.g .
Tumor Mutational Burden • BRCA Biomarker • Circulating tumor DNA
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • ARID1A (AT-rich interaction domain 1A) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1)
|
TP53 mutation • EGFR mutation • BRAF mutation • PIK3CA mutation • KIT mutation • TMB-L
|
Guardant360® CDx
6ms
Clinicopathological Features of Intrathyroid Thymic Carcinoma (PubMed, Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao)
Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features,immunohistochemical characteristics,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Methods Clinical data of 7 patients with intrathyroid thymic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed.Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining were performed on the surgically resected tumors.The infection of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)was detected by EBER in situ hybridization.Results The 7 patients included 5 males and 2 females.The age ranged from 40 to 71 years,with a median of 54 years.The tumors were located in the thyroid gland,with the maximum diameter ranging from 2.2 cm to 6.0 cm and the average maximum diameter of(4.0±1.2)cm.All the patients underwent thyroid gland resection and local lymph node dissection.After operation,all the cases were treated with radiotherapy and five of them additionally received chemotherapy.Six patients were followed up for 10-163 months,all of whom were still alive,including 2 patients with recurrence in situ,1 patient with homolateral cervical lymph node metastasis and the rest with no recurrence or metastasis.CK-pan,P63,CD5 and CD117 were expressed in all the cases,while TTF-1,TG,CT and PAX8 were negative.One case of them expressed SYN and CgA.Ki-67 proliferation index ranged from 10% to 90%.EBER in situ hybridization showed negative results in all 7 cases.Conclusions Intrathyroid thymic carcinoma is a relatively low-grade malignant tumor.The combination of immunohistochemical CD5,CD117 and monoclonal PAX8 is helpful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.EBV may not be involved in the development of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Thyroid gland resection plus central lymph node dissection is an important treatment measure for intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.For patients with regional lymph node metastasis and obvious peripheral tissue invasion,postoperative radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy can effectively delay the disease progression.
Clinical • Retrospective data • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
6ms
Expression of cancer testis antigens in thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Pathol Int)
In thymic SqCC, a positive MAGE-A expression was significantly associated with an increased level of programmed death ligand in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.0181). We showed (i) a frequent CTA expression, (ii) a general correlation of CTA expression with tumor malignancy grades and (iii) a prognostic impact in some of the CTAs.
Journal
|
CTAG1B (Cancer/testis antigen 1B)
6ms
The Anti-Melanogenesis Effect of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Downregulation of Melanosome Maturation and Transportation in B16F10 and Human Epidermal Melanocytes. (PubMed, Int J Mol Sci)
These results indicated that DBL promotes anti-melanogenesis by inhibiting the transportation of melanosomes. Therefore, DBL is a potent antioxidant and depigmenting agent that may be used in whitening cosmetics.
Journal
|
TYRP1 (Tyrosinase Related Protein 1) • GSK3B (Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta) • MITF (Melanocyte Inducing Transcription Factor)
6ms
The spectrum of tumors harboring BAP1 gene alterations. (PubMed, Cancer Genet)
More same tissue tumors of squamous cell histology harbored BAP1 alterations than adenocarcinomas. The current study highlights tumor types that display higher than previously appreciated rates of somatic BAP1 genomic alterations.
Journal • BRCA Biomarker • PARP Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1)
|
BRCA1 mutation • BAP1 mutation
6ms
Hepatoid thymic carcinoma: a case report of a rare subtype of thymic carcinoma. (PubMed, J Pathol Transl Med)
Possibilities of germ cell tumor, squamous cell carcinoma, and metastasis of thyroid papillary carcinoma were excluded by immunohistochemistry. This report on the new subtype of thymic carcinoma is the third in English literature thus far.
Clinical • Journal
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19)
6ms
[VIRTUAL] RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MYASTHENIA GRAVIS IN THYMOMA PATIENTS: A LINK WITH ECTOPIC GERMINAL CENTERS (AUTO 2021)
By immunohistochemistry, we found thymic GCs in the adjacent tissue of thymoma encircled by high endothelial venules (HEVs) that could favor peripheral cell recruitment. We also clearly associated MG symptoms with higher IFN-γ, IL-1β and sCD40L serum levels specifically in MGT compared to TOMA patients.ConclusionsAltogether, these analyses had allowed the clear identification of histological, in particular the presence of GCs, and biological parameters that would help to evaluate the probability of the outcome of MG post-operatively in thymoma patients.
Clinical
|
IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • CD40LG (CD40 ligand) • IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta)
6ms
Complete remission following icotinib administration in advanced ectopic thymic carcinoma patient harbouring EGFR exon 19 deletion. (PubMed, J Gene Med)
This case report suggests that tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a potential treatment strategy for patients with TC having EGFR alterations.
Clinical • Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) • KRT19 (Keratin 19)
|
EGFR exon 19 deletion
|
Conmana (icotinib)
7ms
Dual Inhibition of AKT and MEK Pathways Potentiates the Anti-Cancer Effect of Gefitinib in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
As a result, we identified that the MEK inhibitor, PD-0325901, further enhanced the anti-proliferative and anti-clonogenic effects of gefitinib and AT7867 by inducing apoptosis. Our results suggest that the dual inhibition of the AKT and MEK pathways is a novel potential therapeutic strategy for targeting EGFR in TNBC cells.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor)
|
gefitinib • mirdametinib (PD-0325901) • AT7867
7ms
GENOMIC AND EPIGENOMIC PREDICTORS FOR VARIOUS CLINICAL PHENOTYPES OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. (PubMed, Wiad Lek)
Estimate the features of the formation of various variants of the immune response in thymus-independent and thymus-dependent myasthenia gravis is a necessary condition for targeted immunocorrection or surgery.
Clinical • Journal
|
IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • CXCL8 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8) • IL10 (Interleukin 10) • IL4 (Interleukin 4)
7ms
Difference in the distribution of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and FOXP3+ T cells between micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma and micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid stroma. (PubMed, Pathol Int)
There was no significant difference in the cell density of programmed death protein 1-positive T cells and programmed death ligand 1 expression between the MNT and MNCA cases. Our findings indicated that the immune microenvironment of MNCA differed from that of MNT and, compared with the T-cell profile of MNT, that of MNCA was more suppressive to patients' antitumor immune response.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
PD-L1 expression • CD8 positive
7ms
Molecular pathology of thymomas: implications for diagnosis and therapy. (PubMed, Virchows Arch)
No molecular biomarkers have been identified that predict the response of unresectable thymomas to chemotherapy or agents with known molecular targets. Despite the common and strong expression of PDL1 in thymomas, immune checkpoint inhibitors are rarely applicable due to the poor predictability of common, life-threatening autoimmune side effects that are related to the unrivaled propensity of thymomas towards autoimmunity.
Review • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • YAP1 (Yes associated protein 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
7ms
Phase 2 study of TAS-117, an allosteric akt inhibitor in advanced solid tumors harboring phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations. (PubMed, Invest New Drugs)
TAS-117 showed limited antitumor activity and manageable toxicity. Clinical efficacy was observed in patients with ovarian cancer harboring PIK3CA E545K mutations and in patients with breast cancer harboring PIK3CA H1047R and Akt1 mutations.Trial registration: This study was retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT03017521 on January 11, 2017).
P2 data • Preclinical • Journal
|
PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)
|
PIK3CA mutation • PIK3CA H1047R • PIK3CA E545K • AKT1 mutation • PIK3CA E545
|
TAS-117
7ms
Identification of differentially expressed circular RNAs associated with thymoma. (PubMed, Thorac Cancer)
The expression levels of hsa_circ_0001173, hsa_circ_0007291, hsa_circ_0003550, and hsa_circ_0001947 were significantly upregulated and positively correlated with immune imbalance in thymoma patients.
Journal
|
AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 family member 2)
7ms
[VIRTUAL] Genome profiling of thymic carcinoma identifies putative driver mutations in the NF-κB signaling pathway (AACR 2021)
Currently, sunitinib is the only receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for TC treatment... Our findings provide an enhanced road map for the etiology of TC. Further investigation is warranted into the roles of NF-κB pathway and epigenetic regulators dysfunction in TC pathogenesis and their potential for clinical trials.
BRCA Biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • IDH1 (Isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 1) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • RB1 (RB Transcriptional Corepressor 1) • ASXL1 (ASXL Transcriptional Regulator 1) • PBRM1 (Polybromo 1) • TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2) • KMT2C (Lysine Methyltransferase 2C) • ARID2 (AT-Rich Interaction Domain 2) • NFKBIA (NFKB Inhibitor Alpha 2)
|
TP53 mutation • BRCA1 mutation • KIT mutation • PBRM1 mutation • IDH1 R132C • KIT V560D
|
Sutent (sunitinib)
7ms
[VIRTUAL] Neospora caninum: An immunotherapeutic protozoan against cancer (AACR 2021)
These results highlight Neospora caninum as a potentially extremely efficient, and non-toxic anti-cancer agent, capable of being engineered to express at its surface or to secrete bio-drugs, like human IL-15 cytokine. Our work has identified the broad clinical possibilities of using N. caninum as an oncolytic protozoan in human medicine capable of vectoring molecular therapy, overcoming TME defenses.
IFNG (Interferon, gamma)
7ms
[VIRTUAL] PD-L1 expression in human tumors: a tissue microarray study on 5,561 tissue samples and 87 tumor types (AACR 2021)
In summary, these data provide a ranking list of tumors according to their PD-L1 positivity rate. The strong association with the frequency of CD8 positive lymphocytes supports the concept, that PD-L1 expression in tumor cells represent a mechanism of highly immunogenic tumors to enable immune evasion.
PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
PD-L1 expression • CD8 positive
8ms
SS-A52 antigen expression in thymic carcinoma accompanied with Sjögren syndrome: A case report. (PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore))
In the surgical treatment of thymic tumors with SjS, extended thymectomy might be worth considering to stop the progressive destruction of the targets of SjS-specific autoantibodies. However, the postoperative symptoms may not dramatically improve because the target organs might have changed irreversibly, and memory B cells might persist. This is the first report that demonstrated the SS-A52 antigen presentation in a thymic tumor to the best of our knowledge.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
CD20 positive
8ms
The Prognostic Value of Tumor Mutation Burden and Immune Cell Infiltration in Thymic Epithelial Tumors. (PubMed, Ann Clin Lab Sci)
The present study indicates that the prognosis of TMB-H patients with TETs is significantly poorer than is that of TMB-L patients, which might result from the different levels of infiltration of naive CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • IO biomarker
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
TMB-H • TMB-L
8ms
Role of immunoproteasomes and thymoproteasomes in health and disease. (PubMed, Pathol Int)
It plays a critical role in CD8 cytotoxic T cell development via positive selection. This review provides a brief overview on the structure and function of these specialized forms of proteasome and their involvement in human disease.
Review • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
8ms
Imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in thymoma may be a pathological mechanism of myasthenia gravis. (PubMed, Mol Immunol)
Overall, Th17 cells and related transcription factors and cytokines in thymoma with MG patients were higher than those in thymoma patients, whereas, Tregs showed the opposite results, the mechanism may be that thymoma can secrete IL6 and IL21. These findings indicated that imbalances in Th17/Tregs may account for the pathogeny of thymoma with MG.
Journal
|
IL6 (Interleukin 6) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3) • IL21 (Interleukin 21)
|
FOXP3 expression
8ms
Micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia: relevance of immunohistochemistry with a small panel of antibodies for diagnosis-a RYTHMIC study. (PubMed, Virchows Arch)
Three patients with follow-up information were alive without recurrence at 38, 51, and 95 months. Our study shows that immunohistochemistry, such as that used in the RYTHMIC network with a small panel of antibodies, may easily help to confirm the correct diagnosis of MNTCLH, a rare and low-aggressive form of thymic carcinoma, and avoid the misdiagnosis of micronodular thymoma.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
CD20 positive
8ms
Giant cell myositis associated with concurrent myasthenia gravis: a case-based review of the literature. (PubMed, Clin Rheumatol)
The onset of myasthenia gravis symptoms may precede, follow, or coincide with symptoms of myositis. Treatment with thymectomy, anticholinesterase inhibitors, or immunosuppressive therapy may lead to favorable clinical outcomes.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
TTN (Titin)
8ms
Electroacupuncture ameliorates beta-amyloid pathology and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease via a novel mechanism involving activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB). (PubMed, Autophagy)
Mechanistically, TNEA activated TFEB via inhibiting the AKT-MAPK1-MTORC1 pathway, thus promoting ALP in the brains. Therefore, TNEA represents a promising acupuncture therapy for AD, via a novel mechanism involving TFEB activation.Abbreviations Aβ: β-amyloid; AD: Alzheimer disease; AIF1/IBA1: allograft inflammatory factor 1; AKT1: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1; ALP: autophagy-lysosomal pathway; APP: amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein; BACE1: beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1; CQ: chloroquine; CTFs: C-terminal fragments; CTSD: cathepsin D; EA: electroacupuncture; FC: fear conditioning; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; HI: hippocampus; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MAPT: microtubule-associated protein tau; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; MWM: Morris water maze; NFT: neurofibrillary tangles; PFC: prefrontal cortex; PSEN1: presenilin 1; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TNEA: three-needle electroacupuncture.
Journal
|
AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1) • APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein) • MAPK1 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) • GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
|
sirolimus • chloroquine phosphate
8ms
Immunotherapy vs platinum for advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis. (PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore))
The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will provide a basis for clinicians to formulate the best chemotherapy regimen for patients, as well as a research clue for clinical researchers in this field. The results of this study will expand the treatment options for thymic carcinoma, but due to the nature of the disease and intervention, large sample clinical trials are not abundant, so we will include some high-quality small sample trials, which may cause high heterogeneity.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
8ms
Thymus variants on imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-Clinical and immunological significance. (PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford))
Radiographic thymus variants were frequently observed in RA patients, and may reflect an abnormal immune response involved in the pathogenesis of RA.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
8ms
[VIRTUAL] CSF1 Chromogenic in situ Hybridization (CISH) in the Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors (TGCT) (USCAP 2021)
CISH for CSF1 mRNA ISH is highly sensitive and relatively specific marker of TGCT of all types, including malignant examples. The presence of very large number of CSF1-positive cells in MTGCT supports our prior hypothesis that MTGCT represent true malignancies of synoviocytes. Demonstration of CSF1 mRNA expression may be valuable in the diagnosis of challenging TGCT, in particular giant cell-poor examples and extra-articular DTGCT, and may be predictive of response to the specific CSF1 inhibitor pexidartinib.
CSF1 (Colony stimulating factor 1) • CSF1R (Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor)
|
CSF1 expression
|
Turalio (pexidartinib)
8ms
Prognostic Implications of Pan-Cancer CMTM6 Expression and Its Relationship with the Immune Microenvironment. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
Taken together, these findings highlight that CMTM6 plays an important role in the tumor immune microenvironment, and CMTM6 has been identified to have prognostic value in some types of cancers. Thus, CMTM6 is a potential target for cancer immunotherapy and effective prognostic biomarker.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker • Pan tumor
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
PD-L1 expression
9ms
An Immunohistochemical Study of the PTEN/AKT Pathway Involvement in Canine and Feline Mammary Tumors. (PubMed, Animals (Basel))
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome10 (PTEN), phospho-v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), and the Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR (Rictor) expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 10 canine mammary adenomas (CMAs), 40 canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs), and 30 feline mammary carcinomas (FMCs)...PTEN expression was inversely correlated with p-AKT and Rictor in both species, while p-AKT positively correlated with Rictor expression. A strong PTEN/AKT pathway involvement in behavior worsening of CMT and FMTs is demonstrated, providing a rationale for further studies of this pathway in veterinary oncology.
Journal
|
mTOR (Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase)
|
PTEN expression • PTEN positive
|
sirolimus
9ms
[VIRTUAL] Non-thymic, Atypical Carcinoid Tumor Presenting with Cushing's Syndrome in an Otherwise Healthy Young Male (AFMR-ER 2021)
Patient was started on spironolactone for hyperkalemia and metabolic alkalosis...Patient was transferred to OSH for surgical evaluation and started on metyrapone and ketoconazole with gradual downtrend of cortisol...Patient was started on ibuprofen and then maintained on colchicine. He was stabilized and discharged on hydrocortisone with planned follow-up with CT surgery, orthopedic surgery, and medical oncology...ACTH reached a peak value of 357 pg/mL (reference range: 7.2 - 63.3) which was not suppressed by high dose dexamethasone testing, indicative of ectopic production Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the mediastinum are a unique, rare malignancy but often express features similar to their counterparts within more common organ systems... Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the mediastinum are a unique, rare malignancy but often express features similar to their counterparts within more common organ systems. Studies have suggested that when these tumors appear to be non-thymic in origin, they often express a more aggressive behavior and are associated with endocrinopathies. We presented a case of a young, healthy male who presented with nonspecific symptoms, but who had severe metabolic, immunologic, and orthopedic complications which can be explained by his excessive Cushingoid burden.
Clinical
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
dexamethasone • Metopirone (metyrapone) • colchicine • hydrocortisone • spironolactone
9ms
[VIRTUAL] A Rare Case of Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumor Presenting with Generalized Weakness and Dyspnea (AFMR-ER 2021)
Further workup showed elevated morning serum cortisol and ACTH levels, no response to high dose dexamethasone suppression, absolute CD4 count of 98, negative HIV test, normal metanephrine, acetylcholine binding antibody, and human chorionic gonadotropin levels...There is no drug regime proven to have a consistent response, although adjuvant chemotherapy regimen (etoposide and cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) have been tried... In conclusion, Thymic NET is a rare tumor with an aggressive course. Further studies need to be done to investigate the early diagnosis of thymic tumors. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment.
Clinical
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
cisplatin • 5-fluorouracil • etoposide IV • dexamethasone
9ms
[VIRTUAL] A Case of Paraneoplastic Cushing’s Syndrome in Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ENDO 2021)
Biochemical evaluation revealed: post-1 mg dexamethasone serum cortisol 74.8 µg/dL (N < 1.8 µg/dL), 24 hr urine free cortisol 2987 µg/g creatinine (normal: < 32 µg/g creatinine), and ACTH 170 pg/mL (N < 47 pg/mL)...The patient's clinical course was complicated by persistent hypokalemia and hyperglycemia which were treated with spironolactone 100 mg twice a day and insulin therapy, respectively. Ketoconazole 100 mg twice a day was initiated for the hypercortisolemia; etoposide, carboplatin, and atezolizumab were started for the neuroendocrine tumor... We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome due to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with a squamous cell carcinoma primary. ACTH producing non-small cell carcinomas have been seldom reported in the literature. Although we were unable to provide ACTH staining on pathology, the existence of an obvious neuroendocrine tumor, marked elevation in ACTH, and an MRI which was negative for a pituitary adenoma, strongly suggests paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • CDX-2 • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
carboplatin • Tecentriq (atezolizumab) • etoposide IV • dexamethasone • spironolactone
9ms
[VIRTUAL] ACTH-Producing Thymic Carcinoid: A Rare Cause of Cushing's Syndrome (ENDO 2021)
Clinical Case: This is a 57 year old male with history of pituitary macroprolactinoma diagnosed in 2011, now status post transsphenoidal resection and external beam radiation therapy, with persistent hyperprolactinemia on cabergoline, who presented to our clinic for a routine follow up visit... Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion from a thymic carcinoid is rare. The presence of two MEN1-associated tumors in this patient, macroprolactinoma and thymic carcinoid, is highly suggestive of a clinical diagnosis of MEN 1. Unless otherwise noted, all poster abstracts presented at ENDO 2021 are embargoed until 11 AM Eastern on Saturday, March 20.
IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1)
|
cabergoline
9ms
Pathological and clinical features of enteric adenocarcinoma of the thymus. A pooled analysis of cases from a reference center and systematic review of the literature. (PubMed, Cancer Treat Rev)
Available evidence suggests that EAT represents a distinct entity in the context of thymic epithelial tumors, characterized by aggressive clinical behavior, poor responsiveness to chemotherapy and dismal patients prognosis. More research is needed to better define optimal management strategies for patients with such rare disease.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
CDX-2
9ms
Clonal hematopoiesis in adult pure red cell aplasia. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
Five PRCA patients had mutations with high VAFs exceeding 0.3. These results suggest that clonal hematopoiesis by stem/progenitor cells might be related to the pathophysiology of chronic PRCA in certain adult patients.
Clinical • Journal
|
DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 1) • TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2) • KDM6A (Lysine Demethylase 6A)
|
DNMT3A mutation • TET2 mutation
9ms
p63 expression in human tumors and normal tissues: a tissue microarray study on 10,200 tumors. (PubMed, Biomark Res)
The high prevalence of p63 expression in specific tumor types makes p63 immunohistochemistry a suitable diagnostic tool. Loss of p63 expression might constitute a feature of aggressive cancers.
Journal
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
9ms
Reduction of dopamine and glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling in rat striatum after repeated administration of haloperidol. (PubMed, Pharmacol Biochem Behav)
Our results indicated that the DSS rats had hypofunction of the basal dopamine release and AKT/GSK-3 signaling even at 7 days after the antipsychotic was discontinued. Protracted reductions in pre- and post-dopamine D2 receptor signaling might cause prolonged DSS.
Journal
|
DRD2 (Dopamine Receptor D2)
|
haloperidol
9ms
Clinical • Trial completion
|
PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • mTOR (Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase)
|
everolimus
9ms
Roles and mechanisms of BAP1 deubiquitinase in tumor suppression. (PubMed, Cell Death Differ)
In this review, we summarize the biological and molecular functions of BAP1 and explain how the inactivation of this DUB might cause human cancers. We also highlight some of the unresolved questions and suggest potential new directions.
Review • Journal
|
BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1)
|
BAP1 mutation
9ms
The role of angiogenetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in thymic malignancies and thymic benign lesions. (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
This is the first study investigating the angiogenetic polymorphisms in thymic benign lesions and TETs. SNPs analysis may represent a further asset in identification of patients who could benefit from anti-angiogenetic therapy.
Journal
|
PDGFRA (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha) • KDR (Kinase insert domain receptor) • HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) • ERCC1 (Excision repair cross-complementation group 1) • FLT4 (Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4)
9ms
Immunotherapy for thymoma. (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
Few small early stage clinical trials were published so far evaluating efficacy of pembrolizumab and avelumab in thymoma and thymic carcinoma patients. However, increased incidence of immune-related adverse events was seen in TET patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors compared to patients with other cancers. At the moment, ICIs are not standard of care for patients with TET and larger trials are needed to establish the right role of ICIs regarding efficacy and safety of these agents.
Review • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Bavencio (avelumab)
9ms
Correlation of genomic alterations and PD-L1 expression in thymoma. (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
This is, at least in part, explained by the fact that several diverse PD-L1 immunohistochemical tests were used in each trial, with four different antibodies (SP142, SP263, 22C3, and 28-8), different definition of PD-L1 positivity and cutoff values throughout the studies as well. There is a huge interest in using genomic features to produce predictive genomic-based immunotherapy biomarkers, particularly since recent data suggest that certain tumor-specific genomic alterations, either individually or in combination, appear to influence immune checkpoint activity and better responses as the outcome, so as such in some cancer types they may complement existing biomarkers to improve the selection criteria for immunotherapy.
Journal • Review • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx • VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay • VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay • PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx
9ms
Genomic alterations in thymoma-molecular pathogenesis? (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
TCs, however, display a higher mutational burden, with frequent mutations of TP53 and epigenetic regulatory genes and loss of CDKN2A. The knowledge of molecular alterations in TETs fosters the understanding of their pathogenesis and provides guidance for further studies that may lead to the development of targeted therapies.
Review • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A)
|
TP53 mutation • TMB-H • TMB-L • miR138 underexpression + miR497 overexpression
9ms
Multimodality approach in treatment of thymic tumors. (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
The combined modality treatment should provide prevention of locoregional and intrathoracic recurrence and eventually long-term survival with cure. New targeted therapies including agents against PI3K, CDK, and immune checkpoint PD-1/PD-L1 may lead to higher response rates with less toxicity.
Review • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
9ms
Pathology of thymoma-where are we today? (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
If adequate sample is available (upto100 cells), PD-L1 testing should be considered for immunotherapy in recurrent/ advanced thymomas and thymic carcinomas. This list is likely to expand in future with increasing emphasis on molecular testing to support treatment with newer therapies.
Review • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)
|
BRAF mutation • PIK3CA mutation • AKT1 mutation
9ms
Comparison of PD-L1 immunohistochemical assays and the significance of PD-L1 expression in thymoma. (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
The prognostic impact of PD-L1 expression in thymoma might be found only when thymic carcinoma patients were excluded. Furthermore, it also could be identified when we analyzed thymomas completely resected, distinct from biopsy and incompletely resected cases.
Review • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression
9ms
Clinical • New P2 trial
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • lenvatinib
9ms
Molecular Profiling and Targeted Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Thymic Malignancies (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=469, Active, not recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial completion date: Dec 2021 --> Dec 2022 | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2020 --> Dec 2022
Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene)
|
EGFR mutation
|
erlotinib • Sutent (sunitinib) • Koselugo (selumetinib) • lapatinib • MK-2206
9ms
Mutation Profile of Thymic Carcinoma and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumor by Targeted Next-generation Sequencing. (PubMed, Clin Lung Cancer)
In this preliminary next-generation sequencing study, we unexpectedly found evidence suggesting that several gene mutations might be therapeutic targets. The gene mutations in RTKs may be a valuable prognostic factor in thymic squamous cell carcinoma.
Journal • Next-generation sequencing
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • PDGFRA (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha)
|
TP53 mutation • KIT mutation • PDGFRA mutation
10ms
In sickness and in health: when myasthenia gravis is a conjugal matter. (PubMed, Neurol Sci)
Compared with other autoimmune disorders, myasthenia gravis has a lower prevalence. The surveillance environmental exposure may greatly improve our knowledge of non-genetic drivers of autoimmunity.
Journal
|
HLA-DRB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR Beta 1)
10ms
Gene of the month: GTF2I. (PubMed, J Clin Pathol)
Studies involving patients are presently few and the availability of biospecimens amenable to molecular diagnostic studies is limited. Future studies involving biospecimens and transformed cell lines shall provide a clear understanding of the GTF2I mechanistic to eventually lead to targeted treatment.
Journal
|
RARA (Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha)
10ms
Immune checkpoint inhibitor induced anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (Anti-GAD 65) limbic encephalitis responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. (PubMed, J Neurol)
We describe a patient who presented with progressive memory loss 2 weeks after her third cycle of Ipilimumab and Nivolumab with associated elevated Anti-GAD65 levels. Treatment with IVIG and PLEX led to complete resolution of her symptoms and improvement in her brain imaging and CSF findings.
Journal • Checkpoint inhibition
|
CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4)
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Yervoy (ipilimumab)
10ms
Thymic cancer in lynch syndrome: an unusual association. (PubMed, BMJ Case Rep)
She received carboplatin and paclitaxel, with initial clinical improvement, but then died within 3 months after diagnosis. This case highlights that thymic cancer may be one of the malignancies associated with Lynch syndrome, and MLH1 gene mutation may have a role in the pathogenesis of thymic cancer.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • MLH1 (MutL homolog 1)
|
MSI-H/dMMR • KIT mutation • MLH1 deletion • MLH1 mutation
|
carboplatin • paclitaxel
10ms
Analysis of Gene Variation in Thymoma by Microarray (PubMed, Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi)
We found a variety of genes abnormally expressed in thymoma, which will provide reference for the study of pathogenesis and biomarkers of thymoma in the future.
Journal
|
IL6 (Interleukin 6) • CD36 (thrombospondin receptor) • FANCI (FA Complementation Group I) • NCAPG (Non-SMC Condensin I Complex Subunit G)
10ms
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma as a novel diagnostic marker differentiating thymic squamous cell carcinoma from thymoma. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
The KIT-/CD5-positive type B3 thymoma was negative for PRAME. Thus, combinatorial evaluation of PRAME with KIT and CD5 may facilitate a more precise diagnosis of TSQCC.
Journal
|
CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • PRAME (Preferentially Expressed Antigen In Melanoma)
|
PRAME expression • CD5 positive
10ms
Thymic Carcinoid as the First Manifestation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (PubMed, Ann Clin Lab Sci)
Immunohistochemical staining showed Ckpan (+), Syn (+), CgA (+), CD 56 (+), PGP 9.5 (+), and Ki67-positive cells (8-10%) in NET. Therefore, we suggested that genetic testing in family members of MEN1 patient, which may be helpful for early diagnosis.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1)
10ms
RASSF10 is frequently epigenetically inactivated in kidney cancer and its knockout promotes neoplasia in cancer prone mice. (PubMed, Oncogene)
In summary, we could show that Rassf10 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. In combination with other markers, RASSF10 silencing can serve as diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarker in kidney diseases.
Journal
|
KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • RASSF1 (Ras Association Domain Family Member 1)
|
MYC expression
10ms
Next-generation sequencing in thymic epithelial tumors uncovered novel genomic aberration sites and strong correlation between TMB and MSH6 single nucleotide variations. (PubMed, Cancer Lett)
Dozens of genes, including TGFBR2, KMT2C, PRKDC, ATR, CHD2, SDHA, KDM5A, CHEK1, MSH6 and POLE, possessed frameshift indel with different frequencies in different hotspot sites, which could be the new targets of therapy for TET. For the first time, we revealed a strong correlation between the tumor mutational burden and single nucleotide variations, but not frameshift, on DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 in TET.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • ARID1A (AT-rich interaction domain 1A) • MSH6 (MutS homolog 6) • KMT2C (Lysine Methyltransferase 2C) • CHEK1 (Checkpoint kinase 1)
10ms
Interleukin-27 levels in patients with myasthenia gravis. (PubMed, Transl Neurosci)
IL-27 may participate in the pathogenesis of MG and can be used as an early marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of MG. In addition, IL-27 can be used as a target for MG treatment through the regulation of specific immune signaling and maintaining immune homeostasis.
Clinical • Journal
|
FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
FOXP3 expression
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Preliminary Safety, Efficacy Results of KN046 (Bispecific Anti-PD-L1/CTLA4) in Subjects With Rare Thoracic Tumors (IASLC-WCLC 2020)
KN046 demonstrated preliminary but promising efficacy in thymic epithelial tumors. Follow on study in thymic carcinoma is planned.
Clinical
|
CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4)
|
KN046
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Molecular Characterization of Patients with Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma (IASLC-WCLC 2020)
A larger proportion of patients with positive PD-L1 expression was observed in thymoma compared to thymic carcinoma (PD-L1≥1%, 88.0% vs 63.2%, p=0.074; PD-L1≥50%, 64.0% vs 36.8%, p=0.13), though not reaching statistical significance. Conclusion Our study have provide more evidences for the molecular features of patients with thymoma and thymic carcinoma, which may shed lights on the future treatment in cancer patients.
Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • MSi-H Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2) • CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B) • TNFAIP3 (TNF Alpha Induced Protein 3)
|
PD-L1 expression • TP53 mutation • MSI-H/dMMR
|
PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx • VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay
10ms
Clinical
|
CSF2 (Colony stimulating factor 2)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing in Thymic Epithelial Tumors: Identification of Multiple Poor Prognosis Biomarkers in Chinese Patients (IASLC-WCLC 2020)
The most altered genes are focused on signal pathways of cell cycle control, Chromatin remodeling/DNA methylation, PI3K/AKT1/MTOR, MAP kinase signaling and others.In addition, we firstly identified multiple poor prognosis biomarkers in Chinese thymic epithelial tumors patients. These poor prognosis biomarkers are mainly enriched in cell cycle control and PI3K/AKT1/MTOR pathways.
Clinical • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • ASXL1 (ASXL Transcriptional Regulator 1) • KMT2D (Lysine Methyltransferase 2D) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1) • TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2) • TSC2 (TSC complex subunit 2) • MTAP (Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase) • CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B) • STAG2 (Stromal Antigen 2) • MLL2 (Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 2) • EPHB4 (EPH receptor B4)
|
TP53 mutation • HRAS mutation • CDKN2A deletion • ASXL1 mutation • KMT2D mutation • BAP1 mutation • PAK4 deletion • STAG2 mutation
|
FoundationOne® CDx
11ms
Seronegative panencephalitis complicated by viral encephalomyelitis in a case of Good's syndrome-a neuropathological report. (PubMed, Int J Neurosci)
While the distinction between seronegative autoimmune encephalitis versus a viral encephalomyelitis often blurs histologically, we speculated viral encephalomyelitis to have happened towards the latter part of his long illness. To our knowledge, this is a case of Good's syndrome presenting with seronegative autoimmune panencephalitis superimposed with a viral infection.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
11ms
Journal
|
ABL1 (ABL proto-oncogene 1) • BCR (BCR Activator Of RhoGEF And GTPase)
11ms
The expression pattern of ACTBL2 in thymoma reveals its potential therapeutic target efficacy. (PubMed, J BUON)
Overall, a dysfunction module for thymoma was identified, and significant pivotal regulators in the module were used as important components of thymoma molecular dysregulation, of which ACTBL2 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in thymoma, which provides an effective theoretical reference for subsequent researchers.
Clinical • Journal
|
CEBPA (CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha)
11ms
First results of the EORTC-SPECTA/Arcagen study exploring the genomics of rare cancers in collaboration with the European reference network EURACAN. (PubMed, ESMO Open)
The Arcagen project aims to bridge the gap and improve knowledge of the molecular landscape of rare cancers by prospectively recruiting up to 1000 patients.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • RB1 (RB Transcriptional Corepressor 1) • MDM2 (E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) • CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B)
|
CDKN2A deletion • MDM2 amplification • RB1 deletion
|
FoundationOne® CDx • FoundationOne® Heme CDx
11ms
Neospora caninum: a new class of biopharmaceuticals in the therapeutic arsenal against cancer. (PubMed, J Immunother Cancer)
These results highlight N. caninum as a potential, extremely effective and non-toxic anticancer agent, capable of being engineered to either express at its surface or to secrete biodrugs. Our work has identified the broad clinical possibilities of using N. caninum as an oncolytic protozoan in human medicine.
Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
Imlygic (talimogene laherparepvec)
11ms
Oral TrkA Inhibitor VMD-928 for Treatment of Advanced Adult Solid Tumors or Lymphoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=54, Recruiting, VM Oncology, LLC | Trial completion date: Dec 2021 --> Dec 2022 | Trial primary completion date: Jun 2021 --> Jun 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1)
|
NTRK1 fusion • NTRK1 mutation • NTRK expression
|
VMD-928
11ms
Clinical Significance and Role of TK1, CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 levels in Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancers. (PubMed, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev)
Significant variation was observed between the single biomarker test and their combination (Z test, p .
Clinical • Journal
|
Cancer antigen 19-9
11ms
Journal
|
IL6 (Interleukin 6) • BRIP1 (BRCA1 Interacting Protein C-terminal Helicase 1) • COL1A1 (Collagen, type I, alpha 1)
|
U0126 • bleomycin
11ms
A Case of Recurrent Thymoma Treated with Pembrolizumab as the Fifth-Line Chemotherapy (PubMed, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho)
After 3 courses, the lesions had remarkably decreased. This suggests that pembrolizumab for thymoma with high PD-L1 expression is efficacious.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
11ms
Atypical UV Photoproducts Induce Non-canonical Mutation Classes Associated with Driver Mutations in Melanoma. (PubMed, Cell Rep)
Similar non-canonical mutations are present in skin cancers, which also display transcriptional asymmetry and dependence on NER. These include multiple driver mutations, most prominently the recurrent BRAF V600E and V600K substitutions, suggesting that mutations arising from rare, atypical UV photoproducts may play a role in melanomagenesis.
Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene)
|
BRAF V600E • BRAF V600 • BRAF V600K
11ms
Investigation of MLH1, MGMT, CDKN2A, and RASSF1A Gene Methylation in Thymomas From Patients With Myasthenia Gravis. (PubMed, Front Mol Neurosci)
Promoter methylation levels of MLH1, MGMT, CDKN2A, and RASSF1A genes were not increased in cancer with respect to healthy tissues and did not correlate with the histological or pathological features of the tumor or with the MG symptoms. The present study suggests that hypermethylation of these genes is not frequent in TAMG tissues.
Clinical • Journal
|
CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • MLH1 (MutL homolog 1)
11ms
Histopathological and molecular characteristics of metaplastic thymomas: report of five cases (PubMed, Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi)
Its diagnosis and differential diagnosis are dependent on the morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical staining and MAML2 gene detection. The primary treatment option is surgical resection, with an overall good prognosis.
Clinical • Journal
|
CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • VIM (Vimentin)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Carcinoma showing thymus-like element (castle) of the submandibular gland: report of an extremely rare case (ECP 2020)
The origin of salivary CASTLE remans unknown. We discuss the differential diagnosis of salivary CASTLE from myoepithelial carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma or basaloid carcinoma of the salivary glands
Clinical
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Malignant solitary fibrous tumour and type B3 thymoma: a rare case of coexisting tumours (ECP 2020)
Conclusion The coexistence of these tumors makes the prognosis for the patient rather unclear. The high mitotic rate of Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumors is indicative for their agressive behavior, whereas the 10-year survival rates for Type B3 Thymomas are 81%.
Clinical
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Carcinoma showing thymus-like element (castle) of the submandibular gland: report of an extremely rare case (ECP 2020)
The origin of salivary CASTLE remans unknown. We discuss the differential diagnosis of salivary CASTLE from myoepithelial carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma or basaloid carcinoma of the salivary glands
Clinical
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Clinicopathological correlations of PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumours using two immunohistochemical assays (ECP 2020)
Discrepant scoring (SP143 vs SP263) is noted and varies with cut-off values. Clinical trials of anti-PDL1/PD1 agents should take into account variability in PD-L1 expression.
Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Malignant solitary fibrous tumour and type B3 thymoma: a rare case of coexisting tumours (ECP 2020)
Conclusion The coexistence of these tumors makes the prognosis for the patient rather unclear. The high mitotic rate of Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumors is indicative for their agressive behavior, whereas the 10-year survival rates for Type B3 Thymomas are 81%.
Clinical
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Clinicopathological correlations of PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumours using two immunohistochemical assays (ECP 2020)
Discrepant scoring (SP143 vs SP263) is noted and varies with cut-off values. Clinical trials of anti-PDL1/PD1 agents should take into account variability in PD-L1 expression.
Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Carcinoma showing thymus-like element (castle) of the submandibular gland: report of an extremely rare case (ECP 2020)
The origin of salivary CASTLE remans unknown. We discuss the differential diagnosis of salivary CASTLE from myoepithelial carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma or basaloid carcinoma of the salivary glands
Clinical
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Malignant solitary fibrous tumour and type B3 thymoma: a rare case of coexisting tumours (ECP 2020)
Conclusion The coexistence of these tumors makes the prognosis for the patient rather unclear. The high mitotic rate of Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumors is indicative for their agressive behavior, whereas the 10-year survival rates for Type B3 Thymomas are 81%.
Clinical
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Clinicopathological correlations of PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumours using two immunohistochemical assays (ECP 2020)
Discrepant scoring (SP143 vs SP263) is noted and varies with cut-off values. Clinical trials of anti-PDL1/PD1 agents should take into account variability in PD-L1 expression.
Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) Assay
12ms
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified macrophages trigger systemic anti-tumour immunity. (PubMed, J Pathol)
Hence, we engineered a family of chimeric antigen receptor-modified macrophages (CAR-Ms) that direct macrophages to CCR7-positive cells and show that the cytosolic domain from Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) triggers tumor cell cytotoxicity by the CAR-Ms. In vivo, CCR7-targeted CAR-Ms suppressed tumour growth and prolonged survival by preventing metastasis and by inducing systemic antitumour immunity through retarding the migration of LD CCR7 immunosuppressive cells from tumour tissues to distal immune organs, indicating an important role for CCR7 in tumour cell-induced immune tolerance.
Journal
|
CD19 (CD19 Molecule) • MERTK (MER Proto-Oncogene, Tyrosine Kinase) • ITGAM (Integrin, alpha M)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Evans’ Syndrome in Adults: An Observational Multicentre Study (ASH 2020)
Rituximab was administered in 51.8% (7 in first, 22 in second, and 26 in subsequent lines), immunosuppressors in 49% (mycophenolate mofetil N=15, azathioprine N=14, cyclophosphamide N=12, and cyclosporine N=11), and splenectomy was performed in 20% of patients. Notably, thrombopoietin receptor analogues (TPO-RA) were given in 38% of cases, namely eltrombopag (N=24), romiplostim (N=16) or both (N=4). Additional therapies included plasma exchange (N=4), recombinant erythropoietin (EPO, N=3), GCSF (N=2), bortezomib (N=2), fostamatinib (N=1), and parsaclisib (N=1)...In conclusion, these data highlight the clinical severity and the unmet need for therapy in adult Evans’ syndrome. Moreover, the great frequency of relapses and burden of complications underline the poor clinical outcome of this condition.
Clinical
|
EPO (Erythropoietin)
|
Rituxan (rituximab) • bortezomib • Tavalisse (fostamatinib) • parsaclisib (INCB50465) • Nplate (romiplostim) • Promacta (eltrombopag) • azathioprine • cyclophosphamide intravenous • cyclosporine • mycophenolate mofetil
12ms
C-KIT mutation in thymic carcinomas. (PubMed, Pol J Pathol)
We report a worse overall survival for patients with c-kit expressing tumours. These data suggest a negative prognostic role for c-kit expression especially within the first 5 years.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • TERT (Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase)
|
KIT mutation • KIT expression
12ms
Trichohyalin-like 1 protein plays a crucial role in proliferation and anti-apoptosis of normal human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cells. (PubMed, Cell Death Discov)
Accordingly, TCHHL1 is associated with survival of cutaneous SCC. In addition, we hypothesize that TCHHL1 may be a novel therapeutic target in cutaneous SCC.
Journal
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • BCL2L11 (BCL2 Like 11) • FOXO1 (Forkhead box O1)
12ms
Interleukin-8 as a candidate for thymoma identification and recurrence surveillance. (PubMed, Nat Commun)
We also observe significant clinical relevance between IL-8 levels in naïve T cells and clinicopathological features. In conclusion, our study suggests that IL-8 is a biomarker for thymoma identification and recurrence surveillance.
Journal
|
CXCL8 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8)
|
CXCL8 elevation
12ms
Thymoquinone Enhances Paclitaxel Anti-Breast Cancer Activity via Inhibiting Tumor-Associated Stem Cells Despite Apparent Mathematical Antagonism. (PubMed, Molecules)
TQ therefore possesses potential chemomodulatory effects to PTX when studied in breast cancer cells via enhancing PTX induced cell death including autophagy. In addition, TQ depletes breast cancer-associated stem cells and sensitizes breast cancer cells to PTX killing effects.
Journal
|
CD44 • CD24 (CD24 Molecule)
|
paclitaxel
12ms
Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia developing during chemotherapy for thymic carcinoma (PubMed, Rinsho Ketsueki)
He had a history of thymic carcinoma, which had been treated with carboplatin in combination with either paclitaxel or amrubicin...Administration of tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (TS-1) was initiated, which resulted in tumor size reduction and a partial response...The patient achieved and maintained complete remission for more than 20 months by a de novo APL-treatment regimen including all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide and tamibarotene. Moreover, the thymic carcinoma has remained stable. Although secondary malignancies of thymic carcinoma have been previously reported, therapy-related leukemia, especially tAPL, is very rare.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • PML (Promyelocytic Leukemia) • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • CD33 (CD33 Molecule)
|
carboplatin • paclitaxel • arsenic trioxide • Teysuno (gimeracil/oteracil/tegafur) • Amnolake (retinobenzoic acid) • Calsed (amrubicin)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Unusual Morphology of a Thymic Mass—Is it Thymoma or Adenoid Cystic-Like Thymic Carcinoma? A Diagnostic Dilemma (CAP 2020)
TdT highlighted a scant component of immature lymphocytes that confirmed the diagnosis of a type B3 thymoma. Although this was a diagnostically challenging case because of the unusual morphology, careful evaluation with identification of features, such as the presence of perivascular spaces and TdT + immature lymphocytes, along with the lack of CD5/CD117 expression supported the diagnosis of Type B3 thymoma.
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
KIT expression
1year
[VIRTUAL] Thymoma With Osseous Metaplasia: A Rare Histologic Variant With Literature Review (CAP 2020)
It is postulated that TGFB1, PDGF, and insulin growth factor play an important role in its pathogenesis. Further cases of this rare variant are needed to determine the exact pathogenesis of osseous metaplasia along with the prognosis and possible treatment options.
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1)
1year
[VIRTUAL] STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ENDOCARDITIS: AN UNUSUAL COMPLICATION OF GOOD'S SYNDROME (CHEST 2020)
Good’s syndrome should be considered in adults with thymoma with unexplained hypogammaglobulinemia. Its diagnosis is often challenging due to variable symptomatology and lack of awareness of this condition. However, due to high mortality and morbidity associated with it, early recognition and timely intervention are essential to improve prognosis.
PTPRC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type C)
1year
[VIRTUAL] A CASE OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS ASSOCIATED WITH APLASTIC ANEMIA (CHEST 2020)
He was started on Filgrastim and Romiplostim His hematological clinical picture was most consistent with aplastic anemia with a component of bone marrow suppression from sepsis contributing to pancytopenia...He was started on prednisone and pyridostigmine and was then evaluated for thymoma resection by cardiothoracic surgery. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by weakness of skeletal muscles, caused by an antibody-mediated attack against the acetylcholine receptor antibody... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with concomitant primary hyperparathyroidism, myasthenia gravis (MG), and aplastic anemia (AA). This case raises awareness of this rare association in order to recognize patients who have this constellation of clinical presentations.
Clinical
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
prednisone • Neupogen (filgrastim) • Nplate (romiplostim)
1year
Asymptomatic brainstem lesions and pachymeningeal enhancement after anti-PD-1 therapy. (PubMed, Immunotherapy)
The first patient, with thymic cancer and thymoma, developed pontine enhancing MRI lesions following treatment with pembrolizumab. The second patient, with prior GVHD, developed pachymeningeal enhancement following treatment with nivolumab. IrAEs with abnormal MRI studies, despite asymptomatology, have significant impact on the treatment strategy for these patients.
Journal
|
PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Opdivo (nivolumab)
1year
Micronodular Thymomas With Prominent Cystic Changes: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of 25 Cases. (PubMed, Int J Surg Pathol)
No clinical follow-up was available in 6 patients. The cases presented in this article highlight the existence of cystic micronodular thymomas, which can be easily misdiagnosed as a multilocular thymic cyst.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD20 (Membrane Spanning 4-Domains A1) • PTPRC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type C)
|
CD20 positive
1year
Everolimus in the treatment of metastatic thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
As previously reported in a prospective trial, patients with previously treated advanced TETs appear to benefit from everolimus in this single institution cohort. Moreover, there was a manageable toxicity profile and no cases of everolimus-induced pneumonitis. A targeted NGS panel revealed several pathogenic mutations but there was no association between detectable tumor mutations and time to treatment failure in this cohort.
Journal
|
CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • KEAP1 (Kelch Like ECH Associated Protein 1)
|
TP53 mutation
|
everolimus
1year
Relationship of possible biomarkers with malignancy of thymic tumors: a meta-analysis. (PubMed, BMC Cancer)
These findings show that high levels of BPTPs or BPAs are more closely related to thymic carcinoma and Masaoka stage III/IV, suggesting that BPTPs and BPAs may play an important role in the occurrence and development of thymic malignant tumors.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • IGF1R (Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) • MSLN (Mesothelin) • MUC1 (Mucin 1) • CASP9 (Caspase 9)
1year
Myasthenia gravis, atypical polyneuropathy and multiple autoimmune phenomena in the same patient, with HLA-immunogenetic profile expectable for Greek Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: a case report. (PubMed, Int J Neurosci)
The diagnostic problems, the atypical clinical, electrophysiological and immunological features are discussed, along with the rarity of the case, with this exceptional combination of autoimmune manifestations, which could be truly associated under the clinical umbrella of a systemic disease, like SLE. Although our patient did not ever fulfil the SLE criteria. To raise awareness among clinicians about the exceptional combination of autoimmune manifestations driven by a specific HLA background.
Clinical • Journal
|
HLA-DRB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR Beta 1)
1year
Clinical • Journal
|
ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase)
|
ATM mutation
1year
Synchronous quadruple colon cancer with two lesions previously obscured by ischemic colitis, plus bladder cancer and thymoma: a case report. (PubMed, Ann Coloproctol)
Seven months postoperatively, instead of a laparoscopic Hartmann reversal, a laparoscopic total colectomy was performed due to the continued presence of severe ischemic colitis. The pathologic report suggested the presence of 2 distinct invasive adenocarcinomas in the descending colon without genetic alterations such as microsatellite instability.
Clinical • Journal
|
MSI (Microsatellite instability)
1year
Alternative Options for Skin Cancer Therapy via Regulation of AKT and Related Signaling Pathways. (PubMed, Int J Mol Sci)
Depletion of AKT expression and activation, and related signaling cascades by its inhibitors, decreases the growth of skin cancer and metastasis. Here we have focused the effects of AKT and related signaling (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathways by regulators derived from plants and suggest the need for efficient treatment in skin cancer therapy.
Review • Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene)
1year
18F-Fluciclovine Uptake in Thymoma Demonstrated on PET/MRI. (PubMed, Clin Nucl Med)
F-fluciclovine uptake is mediated by amino acid transporters, primarily alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2 and L-type amino acid transporter 1, previously demonstrated to be expressed on thymic carcinomas. This case highlights the possibility of overexpression of amino acid transporters in thymomas as well, rarely described before.
Journal
|
KLK3 (Kallikrein-related peptidase 3)
1year
Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Suppresses the Migration and Invasion of Hepatic Mahlavu Cells by Modulating Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling. (PubMed, Anticancer Res)
CTAB suppressed the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells through inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway. CTAB seems to be a potential agent for preventing metastasis of hepatic cancer.
Journal
|
HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit) • CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • STAT3 (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3) • TIMP1 (Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1) • RAC1 (Rac Family Small GTPase 1) • FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) • MMP2 (Matrix metallopeptidase 2) • VIM (Vimentin) • MMP9 (Matrix metallopeptidase 9)
1year
Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Clear Cell Foci (CCF) in the Human Non-Cirrhotic Liver Identifies Several Differentially Expressed Genes and Proteins with Functions in Cancer Cell Biology and Glycogen Metabolism. (PubMed, Molecules)
Moreover, our data indicates that decreased USP28 expression is a novel factor contributing to the pre-neoplastic character of CCF. In summary, our work identifies several novel and unexpected candidates that are differentially expressed in CCF and that have functions in glycogen metabolism and tumorigenesis.
Journal
|
mTOR (Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) • CYB5A (Cytochrome B5 Type A)
1year
Clinical • New P4 trial
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Abraxane (albumin-bound paclitaxel)
1year
Collaboration of MYC and RUNX2 in lymphoma simulates T-cell receptor signaling and attenuates p53 pathway activity. (PubMed, J Cell Biochem)
Overexpression of SMYD2 was validated in vivo but the functional analysis was constrained by in vitro loss of p53 in RUNX2/MYC lymphoma cell lines. However, an early role is suggested by the ability of SMYD2 to block senescence-like growth arrest induced by RUNX overexpression in primary fibroblasts.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • TNFRSF8 (TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 8) • PRMT5 (Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5)
|
TP53 mutation • TNFRSF8 expression • TP53 expression
1year
Pan-Cancer Landscape Analysis Reveals Recurrent KMT2A-MAML2 Gene Fusion in Aggressive Histologic Subtypes of Thymoma. (PubMed, JCO Precis Oncol)
KMT2A-MAML2 represents the first recurrent fusion described in type B thymoma. The fusion seems to be specific to type B2 and B3 thymomas, the most aggressive histologic subtypes. The identification of this fusion offers insights into the biology of thymoma and may have clinical relevance for patients with disease refractory to conventional therapeutic modalities.
Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden • Pan Tumor
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden)
|
TMB-L • MLL rearrangement
1year
Prognostic and clinicopathological roles of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in thymic epithelial tumors: A meta-analysis. (PubMed, Thorac Cancer)
PD-L1 expression was correlated with unfavorable prognosis in TETs, indicating PD-L1 expression could help determine the prognosis of TET patients.
Retrospective data • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
1year
Pan-cancer analysis of alternative splicing regulator heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) family and their prognostic potential. (PubMed, J Cell Mol Med)
The prognosis analysis of KIRC suggested that hnRNPs gene cluster was significantly associated with overall survival (HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.35-0.73, P = 0.003). These findings provide novel evidence for further investigation of hnRNPs in the development and therapy of cancer in the future.
Journal • Pan Tumor
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • IL6 (Interleukin 6)
|
CD8 positive
1year
Thymoquinone inhibits the proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells by disrupting the AKT/GSK-3β/Wnt signaling pathway via PTEN upregulation. (PubMed, Phytother Res)
In addition, in vivo results showed that the efficacy of TQ as an antitumor agent in a mouse xenograft tumor model. In conclusion, TQ suppressed human esophageal cancer cells proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo and could provide a novel therapeutic approach for esophageal cancer.
Journal
|
PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CCNE1 (Cyclin E1) • CASP3 (Caspase 3) • MMP2 (Matrix metallopeptidase 2) • CASP7 (Caspase 7) • CASP9 (Caspase 9) • MMP9 (Matrix metallopeptidase 9) • CCNB1 (Cyclin B1) • CDKN1A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A)
|
PTEN expression
1year
Concurrent minimal change disease and retroperitoneal liposarcoma successfully treated by tumor resection and steroid therapy. (PubMed, CEN Case Rep)
Intravenous prednisolone was started, and heavy proteinuria and systemic edema were gradually alleviated...MCD develops in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, solid organ cancers, hematological malignancies, and thymoma, whereas concurrent MCD and liposarcoma are rare. Remission of nephrotic syndrome and normalized kidney function induced by steroid therapy are important for better management of patients with malignancy.
Journal
|
VEGFA (Vascular endothelial growth factor A)
|
prednisolone
1year
Flow Cytometric Analysis of Mediastinal Masses in Cats: A Retrospective Study. (PubMed, Front Vet Sci)
Unlike dogs, the high prevalence of CD4+CD8+ lymphomas in cats it makes difficult to differentiate lymphoma from non-lymphomatous lesions using FC alone. FC may add interesting information to refine diagnosis in some cases, but PARR and histopathology remain mandatory to solve differential in case of expansion of small-medium sized double positive lymphoid cells.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
CD4 positive
1year
[VIRTUAL] Arcagen: molecular profiling of rare cancer patients – analysis of the pilot study (87 patients) (AACR-NCI-EORTC 2020)
Liquid biopsy possibility was added in case of screening failure on FFPE material, to optimize the success rate for molecular analysis for all patients. The pilot study highlights a need for specific research on rare cancers to find driver alterations and develop adequate therapies.
Clinical • PARP Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • RB1 (RB Transcriptional Corepressor 1) • FGFR (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor) • MDM2 (E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
CDKN2A deletion • MDM2 amplification • FGFR fusion • NTRK fusion
|
FoundationOne® CDx • FoundationOne® Heme CDx
1year
[VIRTUAL] Arcagen: molecular profiling of rare cancer patients – analysis of the pilot study (87 patients) (AACR-NCI-EORTC 2020)
Liquid biopsy possibility was added in case of screening failure on FFPE material, to optimize the success rate for molecular analysis for all patients. The pilot study highlights a need for specific research on rare cancers to find driver alterations and develop adequate therapies.
Clinical • PARP Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • RB1 (RB Transcriptional Corepressor 1) • FGFR (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor) • MDM2 (E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
CDKN2A deletion • MDM2 amplification • FGFR fusion • NTRK fusion
|
FoundationOne® CDx • FoundationOne® Heme CDx
1year
Molecular alterations in meningioma: prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. (PubMed, Curr Opin Oncol)
The mutational landscape of meningioma has expanded following the use of the new genetic sequencing approaches. Novel mutations have been characterized and reveal their prognostic and therapeutic applications. This improved understanding of meningioma biology has promising implications for novel treatment strategies.
Journal
|
CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • PBRM1 (Polybromo 1) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1) • TERT (Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase) • SMO (Smoothened Frizzled Class Receptor)
|
CDKN2A deletion • BAP1 mutation • PBRM1 mutation • NF2 mutation
1year
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with onconeural antibodies: A single center retrospective study. (PubMed, J Neurol Sci)
PNS had highly heterogenous clinical presentations. Response to tumor treatment was overall poor, with an unfavorable prognosis. In our cohort, only 29.3% of the patients with positive antibodies were diagnosed with a PNS.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
TTN (Titin)
1year
Selective Targeting of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by PBM Nanoparticles in Docetaxel-Resistant Prostate Cancer. (PubMed, Cells)
Compared to free TQ, A10-TQ-PBM-NPs were more effective in controlling the Hh pathway. Our findings reveal an effective treatment strategy to inhibit the Hh signaling pathway, thereby suppressing PCa progression.
Journal
|
GLI1 (GLI Family Zinc Finger 1)
|
docetaxel
1year
Tumor-associated myeloid cells provide critical support for T-ALL. (PubMed, Blood)
Furthermore, enriched macrophage gene signatures in published clinical samples correlate with inferior outcomes for pediatric T-ALL patients. Collectively, these data reveal that tumor-associated myeloid cells provide signals critical for T-ALL growth in multiple organs in vivo and implicate tumor-associated myeloid cells and associated signals as potential therapeutic targets.
Journal
|
IGF1R (Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Long non-coding RNA USP30-AS1 is a potential biomarker in human cancers (ACS-Fall 2020)
Moreover, the expression of USP30-AS1 is significantly correlated with TNM stage in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, USP30-AS1 might be used as a biomarker for tumor diagnosis and prognosis and a potential target for future cancer treatment.
BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA (Breast cancer early onset)
1year
Heterogeneity of Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Expression in Thymic Epithelial Tumors Between Initial Specimen and Synchronous or Metachronous Metastases or Recurrences. (PubMed, Histopathology)
While many thymomas have a favorable outcome with a 5-year overall survival of 75.8%, reported 5-year survival rates of thymic carcinomas are only 27.5 to 50.5% &lsqb;1, 2] Complete resection is the curative treatment of choice, however, high stage TET are often not amenable to complete resection. Therefore, alternate treatments such as anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, have been studied in this patient population and remain an area of active investigation.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
1year
Enrollment open • Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Tecentriq (atezolizumab)
1year
Curcumin inhibits cell viability, migration, and invasion of thymic carcinoma cells via downregulation of microRNA-27a. (PubMed, Phytother Res)
After treatment with CUR for 24 hr, cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of TC1889 cells were measured...Furthermore, CUR blocked mTOR and Notch 1 pathways via downregulating miR-27a. We demonstrated that CUR blocked mTOR and Notch 1 pathways via downregulating miR-27a, thereby suppressing cell growth, migration, and invasion of thymic carcinoma cells.
Journal
|
NOTCH1 (Notch 1)
|
TTI-101 oral
1year
PD-L1 expression level in different thymoma stages and thymic carcinoma: a meta-analysis. (PubMed, Tumori)
PD-L1 positivity might be a useful factor to differentiate type A/AB/B1 thymoma from type B2/B3 and thymic carcinoma. This result might be valuable for potential anti PD-L1 treatment in thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
Retrospective data • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
1year
Downregulation of CYLD promotes IFN-γ mediated PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of regulation of PD-L1 expression by CYLD in TET cells. Tumors with low CYLD expression could be potential targets for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • TNFA (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha) • IRF1 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression • IFNG expression • IRF1 expression
1year
Head and Neck Cancer Metastasis and the Effect of the Local Soluble Factors, from the Microenvironment, on Signalling Pathways: Is It All about the Akt? (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
This suggests that CAFs stimulate head and neck cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. Akt may represent a potential target for inhibitor design to treat metastatic head and neck cancer.
Journal
|
CXCR4 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4)
1year
Neem leaf glycoprotein reverses tumor-induced and age-associated thymic involution to maintain peripheral CD8 T cell pool. (PubMed, Immunotherapy)
NLGP downregulates intrathymic IL-10, which eventually promotes Notch1 to rescue blockade in CD25CD44c-KitDN2 to CD25CD44c-KitDN3 transition in T cell maturation and suppress Ikaros/IRF8/Pu.1 to prevent DN2-T to DC differentiation in tumor hosts. The CD5TCRαβ DP3 population was also increased to endorse CD8 T cell generation. NLGP rescues tumor-induced altered thymic events to generate more effector T cells to restrain tumor.
Journal
|
NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • IKZF1 (IKAROS Family Zinc Finger 1) • IRF8 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 8) • IL10 (Interleukin 10)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Clinical implications of distinct immunoprofiles in patients with thymic epithelial tumours and autoimmunity (ESMO 2020)
Legal entity responsible for the study: CRCTR Rare Tumors Reference Center of Campania Region. Funding: Has not received any funding.
Clinical
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • VEGFA (Vascular endothelial growth factor A) • CD19 (CD19 Molecule) • IL2RA (Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha) • IL7R (Interleukin 7 Receptor)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Clinical significance of ephrin receptor (EPH)-B1, -B2, -B4 and -B6 expression in thymic epithelial tumours (ESMO 2020)
Legal entity responsible for the study: The authors. Funding: Has not received any funding.
Clinical
|
EPHB4 (EPH receptor B4)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Immunomodulatory role of multi-agent therapy in thymic epithelial tumours and severe immunological dysregulation (ESMO 2020)
Legal entity responsible for the study: CRCTR Rare Tumors Reference Center of Campania Region. Funding: Has not received any funding.
IL2RA (Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha) • IL7R (Interleukin 7 Receptor) • CRP (C-reactive protein)
1year
[VIRTUAL] A real world study of pyrotinib in patients with HER-2 positive/mutations tumors excluding breast cancer (ESMO 2020)
Seven pts received pyrotinib monotherapy, 18 pts received combination therapy, including 11 combined with capecitabine, 2 with albumin-bound paclitaxel, 1 with trastuzumab, 1 with osimertinib, 1 with bevacizumab,1 with pemetrexed, and 1 with irinotecan. Legal entity responsible for the study: JunQian. Funding: Suzhou municipal health and family planning commission (GSWS2019019).
Clinical • Real-World Evidence
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 mutation
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • Avastin (bevacizumab) • Tagrisso (osimertinib) • capecitabine • Abraxane (albumin-bound paclitaxel) • irinotecan • Irene (pyrotinib) • pemetrexed
over1year
[VIRTUAL] A phase I, first-in-human, open-label, dose escalation study of MGD019, an investigational bispecific PD-1 x CTLA-4 DART® molecule in patients with advanced solid tumours (ESMO 2020)
MGD019 enhances in vitro T-cell responses to levels achieved by a combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab replicas. Funding: MacroGenics, Inc. Clinical trial identification: NCT03761017.
Clinical • P1 data • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) • CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4) • MUC16 (Mucin 16, Cell Surface Associated) • ICOS (Inducible T Cell Costimulator)
|
CTLA4 expression
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Yervoy (ipilimumab) • MGD019
over1year
Thymol Isolated from Thymus vulgaris L. Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis by Suppressing the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. (PubMed, Drug Des Devel Ther)
In addition, thymol suppressed CRC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastasis via inhibiting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, both in vitro and in vivo. Thymol may prevent CRC progression through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, highlighting its potential as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of CRC.
Journal
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2)
over1year
Metastasis suppressor protein 1 regulated by PTEN suppresses invasion, migration, and EMT of gastric carcinoma by inactivating PI3K/AKT signaling. (PubMed, J Cell Biochem)
Our mechanistic investigations revealed that MTSS1 was positively regulated by the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and it functioned as a tumor suppressor, possibly by inactivating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT) pathway in GC cells. Collectively, our data provide insight into an important role for MTSS1 in suppressing tumor cell invasion, migration and EMT, which indicates that MTSS1 may act as a prospective prognostic biological marker and a promising therapeutic target for GC.
Journal
|
PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • CDH1 (Cadherin 1)
|
CDH1 expression • VIM expression
over1year
Prognostic relevance of programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway in thymic malignancies with combined immunohistochemical and biomolecular approach. (PubMed, Expert Opin Ther Targets)
Our data suggest the potential involvement of the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway in TETs progression. According to our results, it may be helpful to design future trials with anti-PD-1 drugs to establish high-risk patients after surgery.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
PD-L1 negative
over1year
Diagnostic Roles of Immunohistochemistry in Thymic Tumors: Differentiation between Thymic Carcinoma and Thymoma. (PubMed, Diagnostics (Basel))
Taken together, our results showed that the expression rates for various IHC markers significantly differed between TC and TM. The IHC panel can be useful for differentiation from limited biopsied specimens in daily practice.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • IGF1R (Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) • MSLN (Mesothelin) • MUC1 (Mucin 1) • IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1) • EPCAM (Epithelial cell adhesion molecule) • CALR (Calreticulin)
over1year
Pan‑cancer analysis of transmembrane protease serine 2 and cathepsin L that mediate cellular SARS‑CoV‑2 infection leading to COVID-19. (PubMed, Int J Oncol)
We have expanded on our observations by including data relating to mutations and copy number alterations at pan‑cancer level. The novel hypotheses that are stemming out of these data need to be further investigated and validated in large clinical studies.
Journal • Pan Tumor
|
TMPRSS2 (Transmembrane serine protease 2)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Expanding the Differential Diagnosis of Incidentally Found Pulmonary Nodules in Men (ATS-I 2020)
1 Additionally, compared with female patients, male patients had higher mortality across all stages of breast cancer. 2 This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential when exploring workup for pulmonary nodules to ensure timely workup, staging and management, especially when uncovering unlikely diagnoses with high morbidity and mortality as in the case of male breast cancer.
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor)
|
ER positive • EGFR positive
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Primary Mediastinal Seminoma Presenting as Chest Pain Diagnosed Using Chamberlain Procedure (ATS-I 2020)
The patient has since completed four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. Given its slow growing nature and excellent response to chemotherapy, prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is essential for optimal patient outcomes. Despite the advent of CT guided FNAC/CNB, VATS, and robotic thoracic surgery, the Chamberlain procedure remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for the biopsy of mediastinal lesions.
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
cisplatin • etoposide IV
over1year
[VIRTUAL] A Rare Case of Low Grade, PAX-8 Positive Papillary Thymic Adenocarcinoma (ATS-I 2020)
No immunostain specific for thymic carcinoma currently exists. Epithelial thymic tumors should be completely resected if surgically feasible since complete resection is associated with a better prognosis.
Clinical
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • CALR (Calreticulin) • CDX-2 • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • Cancer antigen 19-9
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Anterior Mediastinal Mass in a Patient with Li- Fraumeni Syndrome (ATS-I 2020)
This case demonstrates that genetics plays an important role in rare cancer development. It also demonstrates the importance of cancer surveillance in patients with LFS. More studies are required to unveil the association between thymic carcinoma and LFS.
Clinical
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53)
|
TP53 mutation
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Lung Cancer Specimens in One Referral Center in Ethiopia: Molecular Markers on Specimens Fixed in Formalin for Extended Time (ATS-I 2020)
We found adequate DNA to perform NGS on samples fixed in formalin for extended time periods, and the data obtained has significant implications for understanding the epidemiology and pathobiology of lung cancer there. The presence of three relatively rare mutations in this small convenience sample, with no highly-treatable mutations, may reflect environmental exposures (ambient and household air pollution) rather than tobacco use as risks for carcinogenesis.
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
|
TP53 mutation • KRAS mutation • EGFR mutation • HRAS mutation • EGFR mutation + KRAS mutation
over1year
Identification of Recurrent TERT Promoter Mutations in Intrathyroid Thymic Carcinomas. (PubMed, Endocr Pathol)
Collectively, ITTC and TC have similar histopathologic and immunophenotypic features but different clinical outcomes. Recurrent TERT promoter mutation may be a key event related to cancer progression in ITTCs and warrants further investigation.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1)
|
EGFR mutation • BRAF mutation • KIT mutation
over1year
Absence of glyphosate-induced effects on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. (PubMed, Reprod Toxicol)
Circulating 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentration were unaffected by GLY exposure. In conclusion, chronic GLY exposure for five or ten weeks did not affect the ovarian endpoints examined herein.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • IRS2 (Insulin receptor substrate 2)
over1year
LncRNA XLOC_003810 promotes T-cell activation and inhibits PD-1/PD-L1 expression in patients with myasthenia gravis related thymoma. (PubMed, Scand J Immunol)
In contrast, XLOC_003810 knockdown exerted the opposite effect. Together, XLOC_003810 promotes T-cell activation and inhibits PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in patients with MG-T.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
CD14
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-1 expression
over1year
Systematic Analysis of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Expression and its Clinical Outcomes in Various Cancers. (PubMed, Saudi J Med Med Sci)
The results of this study indicate the potential use of SYK as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for different type of cancers. However, further experimental data are required to validate these results before use of SYK in clinical settings.
Clinical • Clinical data • Journal
|
SYK (Spleen tyrosine kinase)
over1year
Role of miRNAs in Normal and Myasthenia Gravis Thymus. (PubMed, Front Immunol)
Most of the dysregulated thymic miRNAs in EOMG are associated with GC development, such as miR-7, miR-24, miR-139, miR-143, miR-145, miR-146, miR-150, miR-452, miR-548 or thymic inflammation, such as miR-125b, miR-146, or miR-29. Understanding these pathways may provide therapeutic targets or biomarkers of disease manifestations.
Review • Journal
|
MIR139 (MicroRNA 139)
over1year
CD20 tumor-infiltrating immune cells and CD204 M2 macrophages are associated with prognosis in thymic carcinoma. (PubMed, Cancer Sci)
CD8, CD20, and CD204 positive TIICs in stroma were identified as possible better prognostic biomarkers, considering the heterogeneity of other biomarkers. This study paves the way for exploring strategies of combination immunotherapy targeting B cell immunity in thymic carcinoma.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
PD-L1 expression
over1year
FDG PET correlates weakly with HIF-1α expression in solid tumors: a meta-analysis. (PubMed, Acta Radiol)
SUV of FDG PET correlated weakly with expression of HIF-1α both in overall sample and tumor subgroups. Therefore, FDG PET cannot be used for prediction of hypoxia in clinical practice.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
HIF1A (Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit)
|
HIF1A expression
over1year
Osthole delays hepatocarcinogenesis in mice by suppressing AKT/FASN axis and ERK phosphorylation. (PubMed, Eur J Pharmacol)
Mechanically, osthole efficiently repressed the phospho-AKT (Thr308) / ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) / fatty acid synthase (FASN) signaling both in mice and in vitro. Altogether, this study suggests that osthole exerts its antilipogenic and antiproliferative efficacy by suppressing the AKT/FASN axis and ERK phosphorylation, which contributes to its capacity to delay hepatocarcinogenesis.
Preclinical • Journal
|
MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • FASN (Fatty acid synthase) • PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
over1year
Thymic epithelial tumors: From biology to treatment. (PubMed, Cancer Treat Rev)
A number of new drugs and combinations are currently under evaluation. The efficacy of new drugs should be balanced with their toxicity profiles, in such complex patients that seem to be more susceptible to develop drug-related toxicities, in particular with immunotherapies.
Review • Journal
|
CCNE1 (Cyclin E1)
over1year
Semi-comprehensive analysis of gene amplification in thymic malignant tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PubMed, Int J Clin Exp Pathol)
MYC amplification may be involved in the carcinogenesis of thymic malignant tumors. In addition, MDM2 amplification may be a concern in the increased malignancy.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase) • ABL1 (ABL proto-oncogene 1) • FGFR1 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) • PDGFRA (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha) • CCND1 (Cyclin D1) • KDR (Kinase insert domain receptor) • MYCN (MYCN Proto-Oncogene BHLH Transcription Factor) • MDM2 (E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) • CDK4 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 4) • TOP2A (DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha) • MDM4 (The mouse double minute 4) • AURKA (Aurora kinase A) • CCND2 (Cyclin D2)
|
HER-2 amplification • MDM2 amplification
over1year
APOBEC Mutagenesis and Copy-Number Alterations Are Drivers of Proteogenomic Tumor Evolution and Heterogeneity in Metastatic Thoracic Tumors. (PubMed, Cell Rep)
CNAs occurring late in tumor evolution correlated with downstream transcriptomic and proteomic heterogeneity, although global proteomic heterogeneity was significantly greater than transcriptomic and CNA heterogeneity. These results illustrate key mechanisms underlying multi-dimensional heterogeneity in metastatic thoracic tumors.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53)
|
TP53 mutation • APOBEC mutagenesis
over1year
Annona muricata L.-Derived Polysaccharides as a Potential Adjuvant to a Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccine in a Thymoma-Bearing Model. (PubMed, Nutrients)
The systemic administration of DCs that pulse ALP and ovalbumin peptides strongly increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity (by 9.5% compared to that in the control vaccine groups), the generation of CD107a-producing multifunctional T cells, and Th1-mediated humoral immunity, and caused a significant reduction (increased protection by 29% over that in control vaccine groups) in tumor growth. ALP, which triggers the Th1 and CTL response, provides a basis for a new adjuvant for various vaccines.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
over1year
Endogenous topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breaks drive thymic cancer predisposition linked to ATM deficiency. (PubMed, Nat Commun)
Furthermore, we find that TOP2 strongly colocalizes with RAG, both genome-wide and at V(D)J recombination sites, resulting in an increased endogenous chromosomal fragility of these regions. Thus, our findings demonstrate a strong causal relationship between endogenous TOP2-induced DSBs and cancer development, confirming these lesions as major drivers of ATM-deficient lymphoid malignancies, and potentially other conditions and cancer types.
Journal
|
ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Developing antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune hepatitis type 2 by identification of T cell epitopes (EASL-ILC-I 2020)
Autoimmune Hepatitis Type 2, as a clinically challenging autoimmune liver disease, may benefit from the realisation of novel treatments. By combining approaches including interrogation of immune responses of AIH2 patients, AIH1 patients, healthy donors and humanised mouse models we can explore the immunogenicity and hierarchy of peptide epitopes in AIH2. Our aim, in progress, has been to identify T cell epitopes of CYP2D6 to develop a peptide cocktail for antigen-specific immunotherapy of AIH2.
IO biomarker
|
IL6 (Interleukin 6) • IL2 (Interleukin 2) • HLA-DRB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR Beta 1) • CYP2D6 (Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily D Member 6)
over1year
High expression of KITLG is a new hallmark activating the MAPK pathway in type A and AB thymoma. (PubMed, Thorac Cancer)
KITLG activated the MAPK signaling pathway to promote type A and AB thymoma which might be a potential diagnostic biomarker or target.
Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • MAP2K1 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1)
|
KIT expression
over1year
Pembrolizumab and Sunitinib Malate in Treating Participants With Refractory Metastatic or Unresectable Thymic Cancer (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=40, Recruiting, Dwight Owen | Trial completion date: Jul 2020 --> Dec 2020 | Trial primary completion date: Jul 2020 --> Dec 2020
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Sutent (sunitinib)
over1year
Good's syndrome developing hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following thymectomy (PubMed, Rinsho Ketsueki)
Given that Good's syndrome is associated with both humoral and cellular immune dysfunctions, affected patients tend to develop severe infections and have a poor prognosis. In such cases, early detection, regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and infection prevention therapies are important.
Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Exploring anetumab ravtansine in a preclinical model of thymic carcinoma (AACR-II 2020)
"Combining ARav at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg with 4 mg/kg cisplatin yielded an additive effect on inhibiting tumor growth.MSLN is expressed in thymoma and thymic carcinoma derived cell lines. Anetumab ravtansine inhibits growth of MSLN positive thymic carcinoma in our preclinical model; when combined with SoC cisplatin, ARav confers enhanced tumor growth inhibition."
Preclinical
|
MSLN (Mesothelin)
|
cisplatin • anetumab ravtansine (BAY 94-9343)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Transcriptome profiling of ST3GAL4 and FUT7 in multiple tumor types and prognostic value in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AACR-II 2020)
Collectively, these studies extend the prognostic importance of the E-selectin ligand glycosylation genes, ST3GAL4 and FUT7, to adult AML where these genes may be useful as predictive biomarkers. In addition, these studies suggest potential additional tumor types beyond AML where treatment protocols with uproleselan may have therapeutic benefits.
Clinical
|
FLT3 (Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3)
|
FLT3 mutation
|
uproleselan sodium (GMI-1271)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Epidemiology and clinicopathology prognostic factors of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: Analysis and met-analysis of updated pooled databases (AACR-II 2020)
It identifies the potential prognostic impact of inv(14), tchr14, and TCL-1 on survival. Furthermore, it confirms the survival advantage conferred by Alemtuzumab in TPLL.
Clinical
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
Campath (alemtuzumab)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Is PD-L1 expression a decision-making biomarker for immunotherapy: a meta-analysis and cross-sectional study (AACR-II 2020)
PD-L1 expression alone is not determinative in patient selection for anti-PD-(L)1 treatment. Multiple modality biomarkers should be considered for cancer patients especially for those with PD-L1-negative tumors.
Observational data • Retrospective data • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 negative
over1year
Programmed death-ligand 1 expression profiling in thymic epithelial cell tumors: Clinicopathological features and quantitative digital image analyses. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
PD-L1 expression levels depended on the histological type of TET. Extensive PD-L1 expression in TETs was associated with poor prognosis. Digital image analysis is feasible for evaluating PD-L1 expression in TETs and might offer clinically relevant features of thymomas.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
over1year
AKT inhibition-mediated dephosphorylation of TFE3 promotes overactive autophagy independent of MTORC1 in cadmium-exposed bone mesenchymal stem cells. (PubMed, Autophagy)
These results suggest that PPP3/calcineurin negatively regulates AKT phosphorylation and is involved in Cd-induced TFE3-dependent autophagy. Modulation of the PPP3/calcineurin-AKT-TFE3 autophagic-lysosomal machinery may offer novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Cd-induced bone damage.
Journal
|
SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1) • FOXO3 (Forkhead box O3) • MITF (Melanocyte Inducing Transcription Factor) • AMPK (Protein Kinase AMP-Activated Catalytic Subunit Alpha 1)
|
sirolimus
over1year
Image-based ex vivo drug screen to assess targeted therapies in recurrent thymoma. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
The results show that the image-based ex vivo therapy efficacy screening strategy can be used to identify patient and tumor relevant drug sensitivity patterns in thymoma. The results also warrant continued research on EGFR as a biomarker and therapy target in recurrent thymomas.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor)
|
EGFR expression
|
Erbitux (cetuximab)
over1year
Microscopic polyangiitis associated with thymic tumor: a case report and review of the literature. (PubMed, BMC Nephrol)
Considering the patient's triple-ANCA positivity, thymic diseases may be associated with the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis due to central T-cell tolerance. A further accumulation of cases is needed, because thymectomy does not always induce the remission of thymoma-associated autoimmune diseases.
Clinical • Journal
|
CRP (C-reactive protein)
over1year
A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Atezolizumab (Tecentriq) in Previously-Treated Patients With Advanced Thymic Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2; Trial completion date: May 2024 --> Feb 2024 | Trial primary completion date: May 2024 --> Feb 2024
Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Tecentriq (atezolizumab)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] An open-label phase Ib study to determine safety and preliminary efficacy of oral Lucitanib (AL3810) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric, hepatocellular, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant biliary, and thymic tumors. (ASCO 2020)
Although CON exhibited higher incidence, drug-related TEAEs at both groups were expected and manageable. Lucitanib exhibited better efficacy profile when administrated 10mg QD continuously. Further safety and efficacy of lucitanib is being evaluated in phase II/III studies.
Clinical • P1 data
|
FGFR (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor)
|
lucitanib (E 3810)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Genomic characterizations of KIT and PDGFRA in Chinese pan-cancer patients. (ASCO 2020)
KIT and PDGFRA alterations occurred in 2.1% and 1.6% respectively in Chinese pan-cancer patients and mutually exclusive with known driver genes. KIT and PDGFRA alterations may act as driving oncogenic factors across cancers and warrant drug development strategy. Research Funding: None
Clinical • MSi-H Biomarker • Pan tumor
|
MSI (Microsatellite instability) • PDGFRA (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha)
|
KIT mutation • PDGFRA mutation
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Distinct genomic and immune microenvironment between thymomas and thymic carcinomas. (ASCO 2020)
This study elucidated the molecular and immune microenvironment discrepancy between two subtypes of TETs. From molecular perspective, thymomas and thymic carcinomas are entirely different diseases with different etiology and characterized by distinct immune infiltration, and thus should be managed with disparate therapeutic strategies. Findings in this study may also be useful in future targets development and exploration of immunotherapies in TETs.
Tumor Mutational Burden • IO biomarker
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • NCAM1 (Neural cell adhesion molecule 1)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] The landscape of predictive biomarkers for ATR inhibition in Chinese solid-tumor patients. (ASCO 2020)
Our study reported the prevalence of gene mutations of ATRi sensitivity determinants in a large cohort of Chinese cancer patients. The results revealed the high prevalence and different distribution of these biomarkers across a wide spectrum of cancers. The genomic profile study also provided information for ATRi sensitivity assessment and the drug combinations with ATR inhibition.
Clinical • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase) • ARID1A (AT-rich interaction domain 1A) • CCNE1 (Cyclin E1)
|
BRCA1 mutation • BRCA2 mutation • ATM mutation • ARID1A mutation • MYC amplification • CCNE1 amplification
over1year
Metastatic Thymoma Harboring a Deleterious BRCA2 Mutation Derives Durable Clinical Benefit from Olaparib. (PubMed, Oncologist)
KEY POINTS: Targeted therapy has yet to enter the standard clinical management of metastatic thymomas. Patients with BRCA2-mutant thymomas may benefit from poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition.
Clinical • Review • Journal • BRCA Biomarker • PARP Biomarker
|
BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • BRCA (Breast cancer early onset)
|
BRCA2 mutation • BRCA2 deletion • BRCA mutation
|
Lynparza (olaparib)
over1year
Contact-dependent killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is insufficient for EL4 tumor regression in vivo. (PubMed, Cancer Res)
In this model IFNγ substantially reduced tumor growth compared to direct killing alone. Collectively these data demonstrate that contact-dependent killing is insufficient for EL4 regression in vivo and highlight the potential importance of cytokine-induced antiproliferative effects in T cell-mediated tumor control.
Preclinical • Journal
|
APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein)
over1year
High expression level of SOX2 is significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with thymic epithelial tumors. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
SOX2 is expressed significantly higher in TC than in TM. SOX2 expression is also closely related to IGF-1 and pAKT expression. The higher expression of SOX2 is significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with TET.
Clinical • Journal
|
IGF1R (Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) • IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1) • SOX2
over1year
PreMSIm: An R package for predicting microsatellite instability from the expression profiling of a gene panel in cancer. (PubMed, Comput Struct Biotechnol J)
Moreover, PreMSIm displayed superior or comparable performance versus other DNA or mRNA-based methods. We conclude that PreMSIm has the potential to provide an alternative approach for identifying MSI in cancer.
Journal • Microsatellite Instability
|
MSI (Microsatellite instability) • APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein)
over1year
New P2 trial • Clinical • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Tecentriq (atezolizumab)
over1year
Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Myasthenia Gravis: Tools for Personalized Medicine. (PubMed, Front Immunol)
Studies of circulating miRNA profiles in Lrp4 or agrin antibody-seropositive MG are still lacking. This review summarizes the present knowledge of circulating miRNAs in different subgroups of MG.
Review • Journal
|
MIR21 (MicroRNA 21)
over1year
Expression of molecules of the Wnt pathway and of E-cadherin in the etiopathogenesis of human thymomas. (PubMed, Oncol Lett)
In summary, the Wnt pathway was activated in human thymoma and may contribute to oncogenesis. Detection of molecules of the Wnt pathway may be of diagnostic and prognostic value.
Journal
|
CCND1 (Cyclin D1) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • CDH1 (Cadherin 1)
|
CCND1 expression • CDH1 expression
over1year
Expanding the Differential Diagnosis of Incidentally Found Pulmonary Nodules in Men (ATS 2020)
He underwent surgical resection and was treated with chemotherapy with adjuvant proton radiation followed by hormonal therapy. He continues to have asymptomatic progression of his pulmonary nodules consistent with metastatic disease despite different chemotherapy regimens over the past three years. Although only 17% of breast cancers demonstrate the propensity to metastasize to the lungs4, men are more likely than women to present at an advanced stage of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis, with up to 40% of patients presenting with Stage III or IV disease.3 This has been attributed in part to lack of population screening and failure to identify related risk factors or symptoms.1 Additionally, compared with female patients, male patients had higher mortality across all stages of breast cancer.2 This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential when exploring workup for pulmonary nodules to ensure timely workup, staging and management, especially when uncovering unlikely diagnoses with high morbidity and mortality as in the case of male breast cancer.
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor)
|
ER positive
over1year
Anterior Mediastinal Mass in a Patient with Li- Fraumeni Syndrome (ATS 2020)
This case demonstrates that genetics plays an important role in rare cancer development. It also demonstrates the importance of cancer surveillance in patients with LFS. More studies are required to unveil the association between thymic carcinoma and LFS.
Clinical
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53)
|
TP53 mutation
over1year
A Rare Case of Low Grade, PAX-8 Positive Papillary Thymic Adenocarcinoma (ATS 2020)
A literature review did not reveal any cases of thymic carcinoma with positive PAX8.No immunostain specific for thymic carcinoma currently exists. Epithelial thymic tumors should be completely resected if surgically feasible since complete resection is associated with a better prognosis.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • CALR (Calreticulin) • CDX-2 • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • Cancer antigen 19-9
over1year
Lung Cancer Specimens in One Referral Center in Ethiopia: Molecular Markers on Specimens Fixed in Formalin for Extended Time (ATS 2020)
We found adequate DNA to perform NGS on samples fixed in formalin for extended time periods, and the data obtained has significant implications for understanding the epidemiology and pathobiology of lung cancer there. The presence of three relatively rare mutations in this small convenience sample, with no highly-treatable mutations, may reflect environmental exposures (ambient and household air pollution) rather than tobacco use as risks for carcinogenesis.
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
|
TP53 mutation • KRAS mutation • EGFR mutation
over1year
Necrotizing Lymphocytic Myocarditis and Neuromuscular Respiratory Failure Due to Immunotherapy with Pembrolizumab (ATS 2020)
This case suggests possible concomitant drug-induced diaphragmatic necrosis and myocarditis, which have both previously been reported with Pembrolizumab. Regardless of whether the patient had drug-induced myasthenia gravis or diaphragmatic necrosis, this case highlights a rare and interesting cause of cardiogenic shock and respiratory failure.
PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
over1year
Mediastinal abscess due to Aspergillus in a patient with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1-negative (PubMed, Rinsho Ketsueki)
Infectious abscesses should be considered for prompt qualitative diagnosis in patients with mediastinal masses. Thymoma, germ cell tumor, and malignant lymphoma are the most common anterior mediastinal tumors, whereas infectious abscesses should also be considered when myeloid sarcoma is suspected in patients with an underlying myeloid tumor.
Clinical • Journal
|
ABL1 (ABL proto-oncogene 1)
over1year
The prognostic impact of programmed cell death 1 and its ligand and the correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in thymic carcinoma. (PubMed, Cancer Med)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, PD-L1, and PD-1 + TILs have prognostic impact, and PD-L1 is correlated with EMT status. PD-L1 expression after IT was significantly higher compared to before IT and was correlated with the EMT change. Thus, PD-L1 may be upregulated during EMT, and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy may provide reliable treatment of TC in combination with chemotherapy.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • TILs
over1year
Pilot Study of Allogeneic Tumor Cell Vaccine With Metronomic Oral Cyclophosphamide and Celecoxib in Patients Undergoing Resection of Lung and Esophageal Cancers, Thymic Neoplasms, and Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=10, Terminated, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial completion date: Mar 2015 --> Feb 2020 | Completed --> Terminated; Closed accrual due to unpromising results and the opening of study 14C0053 targeting the same population.
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial termination
|
IL2RA (Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
cyclophosphamide oral • allogeneic K562-GM tumor cell vaccine • celecoxib oral • cyclophosphamide intravenous
over1year
A mutation analysis of the EGFR pathway genes, RAS, EGFR, PIK3CA, AKT1, and BRAF, and TP53 gene in thymic carcinoma and thymoma type A/B3. (PubMed, Histopathology)
Mutations in the EGFR pathway and TP53 in thymic carcinoma may be frequent, and the EGFR pathway mutations may be associated with a poor prognosis in thymic squamous cell carcinoma patients. The therapeutic significance of gene mutations in thymic carcinoma should be further clarified.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)
|
EGFR mutation • PIK3CA mutation
over1year
Potentially actionable FGFR2 high-level amplification in thymic sebaceous carcinoma. (PubMed, Virchows Arch)
Thymic sebaceous carcinoma should be considered if a thymic carcinoma shows clear or foamy features. Testing for FGFR2 amplification might be warranted when searching for actionable genomic alterations in sebaceous carcinomas in the mediastinum and in other locations.
Journal
|
FGFR2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) • AR (Androgen receptor)
|
FGFR2 amplification
over1year
Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma in an immunocompromised male. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
Overall, given the clinical context, histomorphologic, and immunohistochemical profile, a diagnosis of EHT was made. At 12 months of follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence.
Journal
|
CD34 (CD34 molecule)
over1year
Clinical • Enrollment change
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
MSI-H/dMMR • HER-2 negative
|
vudalimab (XmAb717)
over1year
EWSR1-translocation in primary hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the thymus. (PubMed, Histopathology)
These findings suggest that the EWSR1 translocation and possibly the EWSR1-ATF1 fusion might be unifying genomic alterations for thymic clear cell carcinomas with prominent hyalinised stroma, for which we propose the term 'hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the thymus'. Because the immunophenotype is unspecific, testing for the EWSR1 translocation might be helpful in discriminating this entity from other thymic neoplasms or metastases, in particular those with clear cell change.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
over1year
Immune-related adverse events are clustered into distinct subtypes by T-cell profiling before and early after anti-PD-1 treatment. (PubMed, Oncoimmunology)
This study included 31 patients with refractory thymic epithelial tumor (TET) who were enrolled in a phase II trial of pembrolizumab (NCT02607631) and 60 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received pembrolizumab or nivolumab. The T-cell parameters showed a predictive value for the development of each subtype of severe irAEs. In conclusion, severe irAEs after anti-PD-1 treatment were clustered into four immunological subtypes, and potential biomarkers for early prediction of severe irAEs were proposed.
Journal • Adverse events • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Opdivo (nivolumab)
over1year
A mutational profile in multiple thymic squamous cell carcinoma. (PubMed, Gland Surg)
These results demonstrated that the 3 multiple TSCC nodules were spatially independent of each other but were highly similar with respect to histological sources and genetic characteristics, suggesting that 2 TSCC nodules were likely metastases of the third nodule. These findings suggest that TSCC cells can be transferred to other sites inside the thymus and that total thymectomy is a good treatment option for thymic epithelial tumors.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • ARID1A (AT-rich interaction domain 1A)
over1year
Biphenotypic Branchioma: A Better Name Than Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma for a Neoplasm with HRAS Mutation. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
These findings, without evidence of thymic derivation or an ectopic tissue location, strongly support that EHT is a true neoplasm. The name biphenotyic branchioma more correctly reflects the true nature of this dual mesoderm and endoderm derived tumor occurring in the lower neck.
Journal
|
HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
over1year
Oral TrkA Inhibitor VMD-928 for Treatment of Advanced Adult Solid Tumors or Lymphoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=54, Recruiting, VM Oncology, LLC | Trial completion date: May 2020 --> Dec 2021 | Trial primary completion date: Nov 2019 --> Jun 2021
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1)
|
NTRK1 fusion • NTRK1 mutation • NTRK expression
|
VMD-928
over1year
High Neutrophil Count as a Negative Prognostic Factor for Relapse in Patients with Thymic Epithelial Tumor. (PubMed, Ann Surg Oncol)
High Neut count significantly correlated with TET recurrence, suggesting a negative prognostic effect of latent inflammation in TET patients.
Clinical • Journal
|
CRP (C-reactive protein)
over1year
A Pilot Study to Investigate the Safety and Clinical Activity of Avelumab (MSB0010718C) in Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma After Progression on Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=55, Recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial completion date: Sep 2021 --> Sep 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Sep 2020 --> Sep 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Bavencio (avelumab)
over1year
Genetic Alterations Targeting KIT in Breast Cancer (USCAP 2020)
BCs harboring KIT activating mutations are exceedingly uncommon. These BCs are phenotypically heterogeneous, but appear to be enriched for ER+ tumors. The presence of somatic KIT mutations restricted to metastasis in cases for which paired p-BC and m-BC were interrogated suggests that genetic alterations in KIT might be late events in the evolution and/or progression in BC or might represent a mechanism of resistance in ER+ relapsed cases lacking ESR1 mutations.
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor)
|
KIT mutation
over1year
Fine Needle Aspiration of Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT): A 19-Year Retrospective Study of 33 Cases from a Single Institution (USCAP 2020)
The abovementioned morphological features along with the immunoprofile of CD34 and STAT6 positivity are useful for diagnosing SFT on FNA. All SFT cases on FNA were confirmed histologically. presumbley the fibrotic background of SFT results in the failure of FNA to establish correct diagnosis in a significant porportion of cases.
Retrospective data
|
CD34 (CD34 molecule) • STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
over1year
Identification of Recurrent TERT Promoter Mutations in Intrathyroid Thymic Carcinomas (USCAP 2020)
We indicated ITTCs and TCs have similar histological and genetic character, except for EGFR, p53 over expression and TERT promoter mutation. Our study showed no mutation of TERT promoter in TCs. Based on the results, TERT promoter mutation may delineate a distinct molecular pathogenesis of ITTCs.
PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1)
|
EGFR mutation • BRAF V600 • KIT mutation
over1year
Flow Cytometric Evaluation of TRBC1 Expression in Tissue Specimens and Body Fluids is a Novel, Sensitive and Specific Method for Assessment of T-Cell Clonality and Diagnosis of T-Cell Neoplasms (USCAP 2020)
Single TRBC1 antibody detection of T-cell clonality by flow cytometry is a highly sensitive and specific, rapid and robust assay that could be routinely utilized in clinical practice.
IO biomarker
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
over1year
A Characterization of NUT Carcinoma Presenting as an Obliterative Thoracic Tumor in a Young Adult Patient (USCAP 2020)
This case highlights the need for awareness of NMC as a rare and aggressive disease which may be overlooked in favor of more common thoracic malignancies. As a morphologically challenging entity characterized by poor tumor differentiation, NMC has potential to be misidentified as NSCLC on biopsy or cytologic material. Factors disfavoring the latter in this case include age and poor response to chemotherapy.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1)
almost2years
Expression and significance of c-kit and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules in thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). (PubMed, J Thorac Dis)
Furthermore, E-cadherin was negatively correlated with N-cadherin, Twist, and Snail while N-cadherin expression was positively correlated with Twist, Snail. Five indicators (c-kit, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Twist, and Snail) may determine the malignancy of TETs, especially for distinguishing thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
Journal
|
CDH1 (Cadherin 1)
almost2years
Study of Hypofractionated Proton Radiation Therapy in Thoracic Malignancies (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=30, Terminated, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center | Active, not recruiting --> Terminated; Requested by PI during yearly Continuing Review
Trial termination
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor)
almost2years
Immune biomarkers in thymic epithelial tumors: expression patterns, prognostic value and comparison of diagnostic tests for PD-L1. (PubMed, Biomark Res)
Frequent PD-L1 expression, particularly in TB3, paves the way for immunotherapy in TET (Thymic Epithelial Tumor). Otherwise, we have set up three reproducible LDT (laboratory-developed test) for four PD-L1 antibodies.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
almost2years
Pembrolizumab and Epacadostat in Patients With Thymic Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=45, Active, not recruiting, Georgetown University | Trial primary completion date: Jun 2021 --> Jun 2019
Clinical • Trial primary completion date
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • epacadostat (INCB024360)