^
5d
EWSR1 rearrangement is not specific for hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary glands. (PubMed, Ann Diagn Pathol)
Our study showed that clear cells could cause diagnostic uncertainty and that EWSR1 can be detected in many primary neoplasms of salivary glands and metastatic tumors that were reported in salivary glands. We suggest that recommending EWSR1 as a diagnostic molecular marker for HCCC should be reconsidered.
Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
9d
Recommendations for the use of biomarkers for head and neck cancer, including salivary gland tumours: a consensus of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology and the Spanish Society of Pathology. (PubMed, Clin Transl Oncol)
These biomarkers, along with other markers that are currently under development, and the massively parallel sequencing of genes, ensure future advances in the treatment of these neoplasms. In this consensus, a group of experts in the diagnosis and treatment of tumours of the head and neck and salivary glands were selected by the Spanish Society of Pathology (Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica-SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica-SEOM) to evaluate the currently available information and propose a series of recommendations to optimize the determination and daily clinical use of biomarkers.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • AR (Androgen receptor)
9d
Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A clinicopathological study of 45 patients. (PubMed, Thorac Cancer)
Radical surgery with lymph node dissection is an efficient treatment for PMEC. The prognosis is poor for patients with advanced disease, a negative MAML2 gene translocation, lymph node metastases, and high-grade tumors.
Journal
|
MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
10d
Management and outcome of parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma by histological grade: A 21-year review. (PubMed, Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol)
Expression of the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene could be helpful in not only the assessment of grade but the prediction of recurrence. 4.
Review • Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
10d
Heterogeneity of Genetic Landscapes in Salivary Gland Tumors and Their Critical Roles in Current Management. (PubMed, Medeni Med J)
In future, these genetic variations may serve as critical tools for diagnosing salivary gland tumors and optimizing the management as well as prognosis of patients. This review presents the most recent advances in the molecular pathology of salivary gland cancers, with an emphasis on distinguishing molecular features that can be used for optimizing current patient management.
Journal
|
NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger) • CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
10d
MYB-NFIB fusion transcript in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: current state of knowledge and future directions. (PubMed, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol)
In vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted to understand the biological consequences of MYB-NFIB translocation, and such findings could contribute to improving the current inefficient therapeutic options for disseminated ACC. This review provides a discussion on relevant evidence in the context of ACC MYB-NFIB translocations to determine the current state of knowledge and discuss future directions.
Review • Journal
|
NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
|
MYB-NFIB fusion
19d
Clinicopathological features of clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland in the head and neck (PubMed, Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi)
Awareness of the histopathologic characteristics, and combined with IHC and molecular genetic examination can avoid misdiagnosis. The biological behavior of the tumor is indolent with a good overall prognosis.
Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • MME (Membrane Metalloendopeptidase) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
19d
NR4A3 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis in Cytologic and Surgical Specimens of acinic cell carcinoma. (PubMed, Hum Pathol)
NR4A3 FISH has a sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 100% in detecting AciCC which suggests that NR4A3 rearrangement-driven upregulation is a recurrent, specific oncogenic event in AciCC, consistent with prior results. 100% concordance between matched FNA/resection samples validate its potential utility on cytology samples.
Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3) • ANO1 (Anoctamin 1)
20d
Microsecretory Adenocarcinoma of the Skin Harboring Recurrent SS18 Fusions: A Cutaneous Analogue to a Newly Described Salivary Gland Tumor. (PubMed, J Cutan Pathol)
This report expands the sites that can be involved by MSA. Similar to salivary cases, MEF2C::SS18 represents a recurrent fusion in MSA of the skin. Unusual features in cutaneous cases not seen in salivary MSA include a case with high-grade transformation and two cases with a myoepithelial cell component. Identification of this fusion expands the spectrum of salivary-analogue cutaneous tumors and aids in precise tumor classification.
Journal
|
MEF2C (Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C) • SS18 (SS18 Subunit Of BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complex)
20d
Beyond Surgical Treatment in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Literature Review. (PubMed, Cancer Manag Res)
There is currently no consensus on the use of chemotherapy in AdCC, either concomitantly to RT in a postoperative setting or at a metastatic stage. Further, the available targeted therapies do not yet provide significant tumour response.
Review • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • VIM (Vimentin) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
23d
Inhibition of HDAC and Signal Transduction Pathways Induces Tight Junctions and Promotes Differentiation in p63-Positive Salivary Duct Adenocarcinoma. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
p63 is not only a diagnostic marker of salivary gland neoplasia, but it also promotes the malignancy. Inhibition of HDAC and signal transduction pathways is, therefore, useful in therapy for p63-positive SDC cells.
Journal
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
quisinostat (JNJ 26481585) • SP600125
25d
Proteomics Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Obtained from Tumor Microenvironment of Patients with Malignant and Benign Salivary Gland Tumors. (PubMed, Cell J)
Malignant and benign SGTs probably exhibit a distinct pattern of tissue proteins that are most likely related to the metabolic pathway. However, further studies in a large number of patients are required to determine the applicability of identified proteins as new targets for cancer therapy.
Journal
|
CD44 • CD34 (CD34 molecule) • CD133 • CD14 • CD24 (CD24 Molecule) • KRT7 (Keratin-7) • PTPRC (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type C) • THY1 (Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein) • ENG (Endoglin) • FKBP5 (FKBP Prolyl Isomerase 5) • HSPA4 (Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 4)
|
CD73 expression • CD133 expression • CD14 expression • CD24 expression
26d
Multiplexed single-cell analysis of FNA allows accurate diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. (PubMed, Cancer Cytopathol)
Application of the novel multiplexed single-cell technology facilitates rapid biomarker testing from FNA samples at low cost. The customizable and modular FAST-FNA approach has relevance to multiple pathologies and organ systems where cytologic samples are often scarce and/or indeterminate resulting in improved diagnostic workflows and timely therapeutic clinical decision-making.
Review • Journal
|
NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK expression
27d
New P2 trial
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 amplification
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • docetaxel • Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) • Trazimera (trastuzumab biosimilar)
29d
Analysis of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (AdCC) of the Head and Neck Region Reveals Three HPV-Positive Cases with Adenoid Cystic-like Features. (PubMed, Viruses)
We conclude that HPV and HPyV have no major role in AdCC. However, based on our data, we also suggest that HMSC should be considered as a basaloid variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and not its own entity, until better characterized.
Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
MYB-NFIB fusion
1m
A Phase 2 Trial of Afatinib in Patients with Solid Tumors that Harbor Genomic Aberrations in the HER family: The MOBILITY3 Basket Study. (PubMed, Target Oncol)
In the MOBILITY3 study (NCT02506517), afatinib demonstrated modest activity in tumors that possess EGFR and ERBB2 aberrations. Clinical benefit seen in all 3 salivary gland cancers supports the growing evidence for the utility of HER-targeted therapies in the treatment of this specific tumor type.
P2 data • Journal • Pan tumor
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ERBB3 (V-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3) • ERBB4 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4)
|
HER-2 positive • EGFR mutation • HER-2 amplification • ERBB3 mutation
|
Gilotrif (afatinib)
1m
Role of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in HER2 positive salivary gland tumour with brain metastasis. (PubMed, BMJ Case Rep)
The patient showed excellent response to the therapy. This case highlights the role of systemic chemotherapy with T-DM1 in HER2 positive salivary gland tumours that could be considered a part of the treatment regimen.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 overexpression • EGFR positive
|
Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine)
1m
Pembrolizumab as a first line therapy in a patient with extensive mucoepidermoid salivary gland carcinoma. A complete clinical, radiological and pathological response. A very specific case. (PubMed, Discov Oncol)
In pretreated patients with high-grade salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pembrolizumab showed good anticancer activity and provided a clinically, radiologically, and pathological response with a viable treatment choice. More research is needed to bring Pembrolizumab to the front-line of treatment. The time and duration of medication should be compared to the time required for surgery in these investigations.
Journal
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
1m
Evaluation of CD44s, CD44v6, CXCR2, CXCL1, and IL-1β in Benign and Malignant Tumors of Salivary Glands. (PubMed, Diagnostics (Basel))
CD44s, CD44v6, CXCR2, and IL-1β expressions were found to be higher in salivary gland tumors. However, IL-1β alone may play a crucial role in the aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors as this cytokine was expressed only in the malignant group with high expression associated with high-grade malignancy.
Journal
|
CD44 • CXCR2 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2) • IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta) • CXCL1 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1)
|
CD44 expression
1m
Worldwide Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of RAS Mutations in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
In addition, there is a significant association between HPV-positive status and KRAS mutations (OR=2.09). This study highlights RAS as a potential therapeutic target in certain subsets of HNC patients.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • NRAS (Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
|
KRAS mutation • NRAS mutation • HRAS mutation
2ms
Tissue and circulating PD-L2: moving from health and immune-mediated diseases to head and neck oncology. (PubMed, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol)
Specifically, we reported PD-L2 expression rates and significant clinical correlates among different head and neck cancer histotypes. Finally, we described the biology of soluble PD-L2 form and its potential application as a prognostic and/or predictive circulating biomarker.
Review • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) • PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2)
2ms
Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. (PubMed, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol)
E-cadherin proved to be a better marker for epithelial phenotypes in PAs. In ADCC difference in staining intensity between different histological subtypes suggests that further studies should be done to assess the usefulness of an immuno-marker to know the aggressive behavior of ADCC.
Journal
|
CDH1 (Cadherin 1)
|
CDH1 expression
2ms
Metastases to the Parotid Gland: Study from a Tertiary Care Centre. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Intraparotid metastases encompass a wide spectrum, often mimicking primary salivary gland neoplasms, particularly on limited samples. Metastases should be considered when histological/cytological features are unusual; detailed clinical information and ancillary techniques aid in arriving at an accurate diagnosis.
Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor) • MUC2 • MUC5AC (Mucin 5AC)
2ms
Role of HER2 in Prognosis of Salivary Duct Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (PubMed, Laryngoscope)
In patients with salivary duct carcinoma, HER2 positivity was not found to be associated with worse overall survival. This information may be useful when counseling patients and considering treatment options. Laryngoscope, 2022.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 overexpression
2ms
Larotrectinib Treatment for Patients With TRK Fusion-Positive Salivary Gland Cancers. (PubMed, Oncologist)
Larotrectinib demonstrated robust and durable efficacy in patients with TRK fusion-positive salivary gland tumors of various histologies, and a favorable safety profile. These findings support NTRK gene fusion testing in patients with advanced salivary gland cancers.
Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • NTRK fusion
|
Vitrakvi (larotrectinib)
2ms
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with anti-Yo antibodies and an associated submandibular gland tumor: a case report. (PubMed, BMC Neurol)
Although tumor detection was delayed, early tumor detection, diagnosis, and PCD treatment are essential because any delay can result in the progression of the disorder and irreversible neurological damage. Therefore, we recommend that the possibility of a salivary gland tumor should be considered, and whole-body dual-modality CT, including the head and neck, and FDG-PET should be performed at the earliest for patients with well-characterized paraneoplastic antibodies when conventional imaging fails to identify a tumor.
Journal
|
CDR2 (Cerebellar Degeneration Related Protein 2)
|
cyclophosphamide • methylprednisolone sodium succinate
2ms
Biological roles and clinical significance of estrogen and androgen receptors in head and neck cancers. (PubMed, J Cancer)
A comprehensive understanding of the functional roles and mechanisms of action of AR and ER in HNC will facilitate the development of better therapeutic strategies for this disease. Overall, studies on AR and ER provide a promising potential for the diagnosis and treatment of HNC in the future.
Review • Journal
|
ER (Estrogen receptor) • AR (Androgen receptor)
|
ER expression
2ms
Response in BRCA1 mutation carrier with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with FOLFIRINOX. (PubMed, BMJ Case Rep)
She had palliative chemotherapy, initially with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin, and then FOLFIRI and capecitabine, achieving a sustained near-complete response for at least 86 months. Despite withholding systemic therapy, she has maintained a durable response. This is the first report in the English literature showing a sustained duration of response in a patient with PDAC and BRCA1 germline mutation.
Journal • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset)
|
BRCA1 mutation
|
5-fluorouracil • capecitabine • oxaliplatin • irinotecan • leucovorin calcium
2ms
Prolonged response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy in two metastatic mucoepidermoid salivary gland carcinoma cases: a research report. (PubMed, Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud)
Both cases of MEC demonstrated prolonged extracranial responses to pembrolizumab. Although both cases reported little to no PD-L1 expression, these results demonstrate immunotherapy efficacy in advanced/metastatic MEC.
Journal • Checkpoint inhibition • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
2ms
Diagnostic Value of MAML2 Rearrangements in Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma. (PubMed, Int J Mol Sci)
Real-world evidence confirmed that the added value of MAML2 is a composite of an imperfect confirmation test for MEC and a highly specific exclusion tool for the diagnosis of ASC. Real-world evidence can help move a rare molecular-genetic biomarker from an emerging tool to the clinic.
Journal
|
MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
2ms
BTCRC-HN17-111, A phase 2 trial of ADT (goserelin) in combination with pembrolizumab for patients with advanced salivary gland tumors expressing androgen receptor (AR). (ASCO 2022)
The combination of goserelin and pembrolizumab was well-tolerated and show preliminary evidence of efficacy in the first stage of the trial. The second stage of the trial has opened to accrual with a plan to enroll 11 additional patients.
Clinical • P2 data • Combination therapy
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR expression
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • goserelin acetate
2ms
Tumor agnostic efficacy and safety of erdafitinib in patients (pts) with advanced solid tumors with prespecified fibroblast growth factor receptor alterations (FGFRalt) in RAGNAR: Interim analysis (IA) results. (ASCO 2022)
RAGNAR data show, for the first time, evidence of efficacy for erda in heavily pretreated pts with a variety of hard to treat advanced FGFR+ malignancies, including glioblastoma, pancreatic, and salivary gland cancers. Safety was consistent with the known erda safety profile.
Clinical • Pan tumor
|
FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) • FGFR1 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) • FGFR (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor)
|
FGFR mutation • FGFR fusion • FGFR1 mutation • FGFR1 fusion
|
Balversa (erdafitinib)
2ms
FAST-FNA molecular diagnostic assay facilitates rapid diagnosis and ntrk biomarker testing of salivary gland tumors. (ASCO 2022)
High dimensional single-cell profiling and molecular diagnostic testing on FNA samples are feasible at relatively low cost and as a rapid test. Application of the novel multiplexed single cell technology improves the diagnostic accuracy of SGT biopsy and facilitates multiplex biomarker testing from FNA samples. The customizable and modular FAST-FNA approach has relevance to multiple pathologies and organ systems where cytologic samples are often scarce and/or indeterminate resulting in improved diagnostic workflows and timely therapeutic clinical decision making.
Diagnostic assay • Biomarker testing
|
NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK expression
2ms
Circulating tumor DNA profiling and serial analysis in salivary gland carcinomas reveal unique mutational subsets and actionable alterations. (ASCO 2022)
Blood-based liquid biopsy can be applied in salivary gland tumors to detect genomic alterations in ctDNA which may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention in a cancer with limited treatment options. Additionally, ctDNA testing may be used to identify resistant alterations to potential therapy. Finally, longitudinal assessment of ctDNA may shed light on tumor evolution and additional therapeutic targets may be found.
MSi-H Biomarker • Circulating tumor DNA
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
|
TP53 mutation • KRAS mutation • MSI-H/dMMR • EGFR mutation • BRAF mutation • EGFR amplification • KRAS mutation + EGFR amplification
|
Guardant360® CDx
2ms
Yatagarasu: A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study of apalutamide (APA) plus goserelin (GOS) for patients (pts) with far locally advanced or recurrent/metastatic (fLA/RM) and androgen receptor (AR)-expressing salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). (ASCO 2022)
Combined androgen blockade (CAB) with bicalutamide has been evaluated previously, but the clinical usefulness of CAB with a next generation AR inhibitor has been unclear in SGC. This is the first prospective trial evaluating CAB with APA for AR-expressing SGC. Although this study did not meet the predefined criteria of efficacy, clinically meaningful activity with well-tolerated safety profile of APA+GOS was shown.
Clinical • P2 data
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR overexpression • AR expression
|
bicalutamide • Erleada (apalutamide) • goserelin acetate
2ms
Outcome for Neoadjuvant Treatment of Parotid Gland Adamantinoma-Like Ewing Sarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literatures. (PubMed, Int J Surg Pathol)
If diagnosed early, patient may be amenable to neoadjuvant therapy, which may improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. This is especially important in head and neck regions.
Review • Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • FLI1 (Fli-1 Proto-Oncogene ETS Transcription Factor)
2ms
S-100 Immunohistochemical Positivity in Rhabdomyoma: An Underestimated Potential Diagnostic Pitfall in Routine Practice. (PubMed, Diagnostics (Basel))
To our brief, systematic literature review, S-100 positivity (usually variable, often weak or patchy/focal) was globally found in 19/34 (56%) adult-type rhabdomyomas of the head and neck region. Especially on fragmented biopsy material, the differential diagnoses of laryngeal rhabdomyomas may include granular cell tumors, oncocytic tumors of the salivary glands or of different origin, and paragangliomas.
Journal
|
CD68 (CD68 Molecule) • MLANA (Melan-A) • GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
2ms
Immunohistochemical analysis of pyroptosis-related protein expression in IgG4-related sialadenitis. (PubMed, J Oral Pathol Med)
This study suggested that pyroptosis-related proteins might be involved in IgG4-RS pathogenesis. However, the specific cellular pathway involved and whether multiple cell death pathways contribute to the occurrence of IgG4-RS still need to be further studied.
Journal
|
IL18 (Interleukin 18) • IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta) • NLRP3 (NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3)
2ms
Expression of HHLA2, TMIGD2 and GITR in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, J Oral Pathol Med)
These results described that certain immune checkpoint molecules, namely, human endogenous Retrovirus-H long terminal repeat-associating protein 2, transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain-containing 2, and glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor were overexpressed in Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, but were independent of pathological grade, and may relate to transforming growth factor β1, phosphorylated Erk1/2, and cluster of differentiation 8.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • TNFA (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1)
2ms
Update from the 5th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors: Salivary Glands. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
In particular, they include gene fusions, which have shown to be tightly tumor-type specific, and thus valuable for use in diagnostically challenging cases. The recurrent molecular alterations were included in the definition of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and microsecretory adenocarcinoma.
Journal
|
AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)
|
AKT1 E17K • AKT1 mutation
2ms
Update from the 5th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors: Familial Tumor Syndromes. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
This review highlights the important findings within these syndromes, especially on the update on syndromes with tumors involving the head and neck region, as Gorlin syndrome/nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome associated with odontogenic keratocysts; Brooke-Spiegler syndrome/familial cylindromatosis and the associated membranous-type salivary gland basal cell adenoma, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome/Cowden syndrome with associated facial skin and mucosal lesions and characteristic multinodular thyroid lesions, Von Hippel Lindau syndrome and the associated middle ear endolymphatic sac tumor, as well as the fascinating genetic aspects of the diverse Head and Neck Paragangliomas. We will also discuss hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome is characterized by parathyroid tumors in association with fibro-osseous jaw tumors, as well as head and neck desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis with Gardner syndrome variant familial, multicentric head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis type 1-associated head and neck lesions.
Journal
|
PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog)
3ms
Using pan-TRK and RET Immunohistochemistry for the Detection of Fusion Types of Salivary Gland Secretory Carcinoma. (PubMed, Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol)
This study showed that pan-TRK staining has high sensitivity and specificity for SC with NTRK3 fusion. Whereas pan-TRK IHC is a useful screening method, further studies are needed to assess the value of RET IHC as a second sequential step.
Journal
|
RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • RET fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • NTRK3 positive
3ms
EGF/EGFR Promotes Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Malignant Neural Invasion via Activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK Signaling. (PubMed, Curr Cancer Drug Targets)
It was identified that inhibitors of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK suppressed the proliferation, migration and NI of SACC-83 cells via downregulation of the PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK pathways. It was also demonstrated that inhibition of EGFR abolishes EMT in SACC by inhibiting the signaling of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK. The present results suggest the potential effectiveness of targeting multiple oncogenes associated with downstream pathways of EGF/EGFR, as well as potential therapeutic targets to limit NI in SACC by PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK inhibition.
Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)
3ms
First-in-human dose escalation study of cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor VIP152 in patients with advanced malignancies shows early signs of clinical efficacy. (PubMed, Clin Cancer Res)
VIP152 monotherapy, administered intravenously once weekly, demonstrated a favorable safety profile and evidence of clinical benefit in patients with advanced HGL and solid tumors.
Clinical • P1 data • Journal
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • BCL6 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6) • CDK9 (Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9)
|
BCL6 translocation • BCL2 translocation
|
VIP152
3ms
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands: A case report with uncommon presentation. (PubMed, Oral Oncol)
CCCH is a low-grade malignant tumor that must be differentiated from other malignant clear cell tumors, including epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, mucin-depleted mucoepidermoid carcinoma and metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry is a useful tool to achieve the correct diagnosis and provide the proper therapy for the tumor.
Journal
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
3ms
Adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) arising in the sublingual gland: Rare case report and follow-up. (PubMed, Oral Oncol)
Although rare in the sublingual gland, particularly at this age, AdCaNOS can occur and early diagnosis and early treatment are essential for a better prognosis and survival rates of the patients.
Journal
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
3ms
DUET-2: A Study of XmAb®20717 in Subjects With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=154, Recruiting, Xencor, Inc. | Trial primary completion date: Apr 2022 --> Nov 2022
Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
MSI-H/dMMR • HER-2 negative
|
vudalimab (XmAb717)
3ms
Prognostic Significance of Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Patients With Salivary Gland Carcinomas. (PubMed, Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol)
Besides the significant association between low SOX2 expression and higher grades of MEC, we found no statistically significant correlation between the studied CSC markers and patients' survival or clinicopathologic features. Therefore, a larger sample size with long-term follow-up is beneficial for thorough investigations toward the main role of CSCs in patients with SGCs.
Clinical • Retrospective data • Journal
|
CD44 • CD133 • SOX2
|
CD44 expression • CD133 expression
3ms
Systemic therapy for salivary gland malignancy: current status and future perspectives. (PubMed, Jpn J Clin Oncol)
Future directions might include a more comprehensive genomic screening approach (usually next-generation sequencing-based) and combination strategies using immune checkpoint inhibitors. These are rare malignancies that require ongoing effort in the conduct of high-quality clinical trials.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • AR (Androgen receptor) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
HER-2 positive • AR positive • NTRK positive • NTRK fusion
3ms
Gene Expression and Mutational Landscape in a PMEC Patient With Low to Intermediate-High Grade Transition. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
We also explored the level of immune infiltration by CIBERSORT. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a case of PMEC in the low- to intermediate-high-grade transition with multiomics analysis.
Journal
|
MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • PDPK1 (3-Phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1)
3ms
Identification of LMO2 as a new marker for acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. (PubMed, Diagn Pathol)
LMO2 is useful for the recognition of ACC and is of potential value in distinguishing ACC from SC.
Journal
|
LMO2
3ms
Clinicopathological and molecular study of 10 salivary gland clear cell carcinomas, with emphasis on rare cases with high grade transformation and occurring in uncommon sites. (PubMed, Diagn Pathol)
CCCs with HGT or occurring in uncommon sites are extremely rare. Combining morphology based IHC and molecular detection provided reliable evidence that the HGT component represented a transformation of CCC rather than the coexistence of another tumor and helped differentiating CCCs in uncommon sites from their mimics, avoiding potential misdiagnosis and inappropriate therapy. The overall prognosis for CCCs is good, except for the HGT cases, which needed continued treatment.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
TP53 wild-type • TP53 expression
3ms
Expression of Mucins in Different Entities of Salivary Gland Cancer: Highest Expression of Mucin-1 in Salivary Duct Carcinoma : Mucin-1 - highest expression in Salivary Duct Carcinoma. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
This is the first study to give a comprehensive overview of the expression of MUC1, MUC16, and MUC5AC in SGC. Since advanced SGCs lack therapeutic options in many cases, these results warrant in vitro research on therapeutic targets against MUC1 in SaDu cell lines and xenograft models.
Journal
|
MUC1 (Mucin 1) • MUC16 (Mucin 16, Cell Surface Associated) • MUC5AC (Mucin 5AC)
|
MUC1 expression • MUC16 expression • MUC5AC expression
3ms
Secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, a rare entity: An international multi-institutional study. (PubMed, Cancer Cytopathol)
Familiarity with cytomorphologic features and the immunohistochemical/molecular profile of SC can enhance diagnostic accuracy.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • VIM (Vimentin) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
3ms
Low-risk triple-negative breast cancers: clinico-pathological and molecular features. (PubMed, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol)
The development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers based on clinical and molecular aspects of low-risk TNBCs would lead to improved clinical treatment. Here, we sought to provide a portrait of the clinicopathological and molecular features of low-risk TNBC, with a focus on the diagnostic challenges along with the most important biological characteristics underpinning their favorable clinical course.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 expression
3ms
A Home-Based Approach Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Alectinib in Locally-Advanced or Metastatic ALK-Positive Solid Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2 | N=50 | Recruiting | Sponsor: Hoffmann-La Roche | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2025 --> Aug 2025
Trial primary completion date
|
ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase)
|
ALK positive
|
FoundationOne® CDx • FoundationOne® Heme CDx • FoundationOne® Liquid CDx
|
Alecensa (alectinib)
3ms
Heterotopic SMARCB1-deficient high-grade transformed/dedifferentiated acinic cell carcinoma and sine-qua-non radiology- pathology with TNM challenge. (PubMed, Ann Diagn Pathol)
Heterotopic dedifferentiated AciCC are extremely rare (two cases reported so far), necessitating definitive surgery with neck dissection and adjuvant therapy. Long term outcomes are not known, and an adequate follow up is mandatory.
Journal
|
SMARCB1
|
CDKN2A negative
3ms
Overview of the 2022 WHO Classification of Thyroid Neoplasms. (PubMed, Endocr Pathol)
As in all the WHO books in the 5th edition, mesenchymal and stromal tumors, hematolymphoid neoplasms, germ cell tumors, and metastatic malignancies are discussed separately. The current classification also emphasizes the value of biomarkers that may aid diagnosis and provide prognostic information.
Review • Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • DICER1 (Dicer 1 Ribonuclease III)
3ms
Demography, patterns of care, and survival outcomes in patients with salivary duct carcinoma: an individual patient data analysis of 857 patients. (PubMed, Future Sci OA)
Surgery and adjuvant radiation should be advocated for all patients. AR expression appears prognostic for survival.
Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR expression
3ms
A molecular reappraisal of matrix-producing breast metaplastic carcinoma highlighted by PLAG1 and MYC rearrangements. (PubMed, Tumori)
We can suppose that MYC amplification behaves in an aggressive way together with PLAG1- break-apart in the cases of matrix producing carcinoma presented here. The gene copy gain is a useful diagnostic tool in the case of difficult diagnosis because an increase was observed in more than 50% of cases.
Journal
|
MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger)
|
MYC amplification • MYC rearrangement
3ms
EMT in salivary gland tumors: the expression of microRNAs miR-155 and miR-200c is associated with clinical-pathological parameters. (PubMed, Mol Biol Rep)
This study provides evidence of alterations in the expression of EMT-factors regulating miRs, especially of miR-9, miR-138, miR-155, and miR-200c. No significant relationships were found between the expression of these miRs and proteins associated with EMT in SGTs.
Clinical • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • MIR155 (MicroRNA 155) • MIR34A (MicroRNA 34a-5p) • MIR200C (MicroRNA 200c) • ZEB1 (Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 1) • MIR138 (MicroRNA 138)
|
KIT expression • CDH1 expression • miR-155 expression • ZEB1 expression
3ms
Advances in the Treatment of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma. (PubMed, World J Oncol)
Based on thorough histology and chromosomal translocations, a more personalized treatment plan can improve the overall disease outcome. The purpose of this article is to elaborate on the current treatment advancements, particularly chemotherapy and targeted therapy, as an effective treatment modality for the management of MEC and highlight the comparison with traditional treatment approaches.
Review • Journal • IO biomarker
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1) • CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B)
|
BAP1 mutation
3ms
Thymic Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
Of note, none of the patients with CRTC1-MAML2 fusion-positive tumors died during the follow-up. In conclusion, the clinicopathologic and molecular findings of thymic MEC presented here are expected to contribute to the management of this rare tumor.
Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
3ms
Novel therapeutic approaches for salivary gland carcinomas (PubMed, Laryngorhinootologie)
On the one hand, there are new entity-specific therapies such as NTRK inhibitor therapy for secretory carcinomas and axitinib therapy for adenoid cystic carcinomas. Moreover, cross-entity therapeutics such as antiandrogenic therapy, HER2 inhibition, and PI3K inhibition are also coming to the fore. For metastatic/recurrent salivary gland carcinomas that cannot be treated with targeted therapy, platinum-based chemotherapies continue to be therapy of choice.
Journal
|
NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
Inlyta (axitinib)
3ms
Metastatic Parotid Gland Carcinoma With ERBB2 Amplification With Complete Response to Fam-Trastuzumab Deruxtecan. (PubMed, J Natl Compr Canc Netw)
This report describes a 67-year-old man with HER2-positive metastatic parotid gland carcinoma who experienced disease progression after parotidectomy with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemoradiation, neratinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine. Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan appears to be a well-tolerated therapeutic option in patients with HER2-positive salivary gland carcinoma, with activity demonstrated after progression on ado-trastuzumab emtansine and HER2-directed kinase inhibition. Further studies should be conducted to explore the use of this agent in HER2-positive salivary gland cancers.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 overexpression • HER-2 mutation
|
cisplatin • Nerlynx (neratinib) • Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) • Enhertu (fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki)
3ms
Artemisinin potentiates apoptosis and triggers cell cycle arrest to attenuate malignant growth of salivary gland tumor cells. (PubMed, Acta Biochim Pol)
Additionally, we found that artemisinin augments the production of reactive oxygen species which further leads to the activation of proapoptotic proteins PARP1, and caspase-3, in a concentration-dependent manner thereby triggering apoptosis. In conclusion, artemisinin exhibits promising anticancer therapeutic potential against A-253 cells and needs further validation of in-vitro results in preclinical models.
Clinical • Retrospective data • Review • Clinical Trial,Phase III • Journal
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) • PARP1 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1) • CASP3 (Caspase 3) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
3ms
Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. (PubMed, Dent Res J (Isfahan))
PCNA expression was higher than MCM7 expression in salivary gland tumors. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the malignant activity of these tumors with group of markers such as MCM family members.
Journal
|
PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
|
PCNA expression
3ms
Estrogen receptor α expression in different stages of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, Dent Res J (Isfahan))
The staining intensity distribution average in high-grade MEC and low-grade MEC was 2.4 and 0.8, respectively (P = 0.48). The expression of ER-α in high-grade MEC was significantly more than low-grade MEC, indicating that targeting this receptor alongside surgery could bring more advantages for patients.
Journal
|
ER (Estrogen receptor)
|
ER expression
4ms
The molecular landscape of breast mucoepidermoid carcinoma (ESMO-BC 2022)
The low level of TILs and PD-L1 suggest an immunoediting deficiency and that MECs may be unlikely to respond to immunotherapy combination strategies. Finally, the EGFR-AREG axis activation, coupled with the complex patterns of mutations in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and cell cycle regulation pathways warrant caution in considering MECs as low-grade TNBCs.
PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) • NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • NF1 (Neurofibromin 1) • mTOR (Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • CDK4 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 4) • SMARCB1 • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • CDK2 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 2) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-kinases)
|
PD-L1 expression • TP53 mutation • PIK3CA mutation • EGFR overexpression • MTOR mutation
|
PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx
4ms
Protein markers of primary salivary gland tumors: A systematic review of proteomic profiling studies. (PubMed, Arch Oral Biol)
In summary, we compiled data about the proteomic profile of potential diagnostic and/or prognostic protein markers of the salivary gland tumors detected by MS-based discovery proteomics. The proteins ANXA1, ANXA5, CAPG, CRYAB, FGB, GNB2L1, IGHG1, PPIA, S100A9, and SOD1 were proposed as the most common potential diagnostic markers of salivary gland tumors.
Review • Journal
|
S100A9 (S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9) • ANXA1 (Annexin A1) • RACK1 (Receptor For Activated C Kinase 1)
4ms
METHYLATION OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES IN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. (PubMed, Epigenetics)
Additionally, P16 did not appear to be related to malignant transformation of pleomorphic adenomas (P = .330).In conclusion, TSG methylation is involved in salivary gland tumor pathogenesis and several genes might play a considerable role. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of complex epigenetic deregulation during salivary gland tumor development and progression.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
RASSF1 (Ras Association Domain Family Member 1)
4ms
Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the lacrimal apparatus: Lacrimal apparatus mucoepidermoid Carcinoma. (PubMed, Am J Ophthalmol)
MECs of the lacrimal apparatus are rare tumors, and the rate of MAML2 translocations is lower than that in salivary MECs. Lacrimal gland and lacrimal sac MECs may not be of the same subtypes intrinsically because of the difference in MAML2 translocation, anatomy and clinical course. The etiological function of HPV type 6 infection should be explored in lacrimal apparatus MECs. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice. The description of these unique findings may assist in the definitive diagnosis of and improve our understanding of lacrimal apparatus MEC.
Journal
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
4ms
Retrospective Study of Cisplatin/Carboplatin, 5-Fluorouracil Plus Cetuximab (EXTREME) for Advanced-stage Salivary Gland Cancer. (PubMed, In Vivo)
Our results suggest that SGCs are positive for EGFR protein expression but the response rate to the EXTREME regimen was unremarkable.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor)
|
EGFR expression • EGFR overexpression
|
Erbitux (cetuximab) • cisplatin • carboplatin • 5-fluorouracil
4ms
HMGA2 Immunoexpression is frequent in salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma: immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of PLAG1 and HMGA2 in 25 cases. (PubMed, Int J Clin Exp Pathol)
Overall, 15 (60%) of the 25 PA cases demonstrated PLAG1 and/or HMGA2 alterations confirmed either by FISH or IHC. In conclusion, PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations were confirmed either by FISH or IHC in this cohort and HMGA2 alteration is a common event in PAs of salivary gland.
Journal
|
PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
4ms
The evolving role of molecular pathology in the diagnosis of salivary gland tumours with potential pitfalls. (PubMed, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol)
This includes CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, MYBNFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusions in adenoid cystic carcinoma, PLAG1 and HMGA2 in pleomorphic adenoma, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory carcinoma, NR4A3 rearrangements in acinic cell carcinoma, PRKD1 mutations in polymorphous adenocarcinoma and EWSR1-ATF1 in clear cell carcinoma. This review is a lens for progress made till date in the molecular pathology of salivary gland tumours with a special focus on their role as diagnostic tools and implications on clinical management of the patient as prognostic and predictive markers.
Review • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1) • PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger) • CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2) • MYBL1 (MYB Proto-Oncogene Like 1) • PRKD1 (Protein Kinase D1)
|
MYB-NFIB fusion
4ms
Evaluation of the Clinical Utility of Genomic Profiling to Inform Selection of Clinical Trial Therapy in Salivary Gland Cancer. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
For patients with ACC, broader genomic profiling has demonstrated added clinical utility. We describe the application of an approach to classification of levels of evidence which may be helpful to inform the clinician and patient decision making around the selection of clinical trial therapies.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha)
|
TP53 mutation • PIK3CA mutation
4ms
Tumor immune microenvironment in salivary gland cancer (AACR 2022)
ACC showed less PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and the lowest infiltration of immune cells in both the tumor and stroma compared with other pathological types. These results suggest that the TIME of ACC is the so-called immune desert type, which may in turn explain the mechanisms of the poor response to immune check point inhibitors seen in clinical trials.
Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) • PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule) • FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3)
|
PD-L1 expression • TMB-H • FOXP3 expression
|
Oncomine Tumor Mutation Load Assay
4ms
Druggable gene alterations in Japanese patients with rare malignancy (AACR 2022)
In this study, the ratio of rare malignancy was higher than that typically found in previous epidemiological studies (about 20%-25%). We observed no adverse impact for OS, which might be due to the high number of patients (n=48) with intractable pancreatic cancer. Remarkably, >20% of patients harbored a potential druggable alteration.
Clinical • Tumor Mutational Burden • MSi-H Biomarker • BRCA Biomarker
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • FGFR2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) • ARID1A (AT-rich interaction domain 1A) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1)
|
TP53 mutation • BRAF V600E • KRAS mutation • TMB-H • MSI-H/dMMR • HER-2 amplification • PIK3CA mutation • BRAF V600 • ARID1A mutation • FGFR2 fusion • PIK3CA E542K • PIK3CA E542
|
FoundationOne® CDx • OncoGuide™ NCC Oncopanel System
4ms
Screening somatic genomic alteration for rare adult cancers: the SPECTA-ARCAGEN project of the EORTC/EURACAN (AACR 2022)
This project highlights the clear need for more collaboration, research and clinical trials on rare cancers, to improve the treatment accessibility for targeted therapy for these patients. The use of liquid biopsy, despite its limitations, is an ideal candidate to gain understanding of a patient tumor molecular profile, while being non-invasive and easily performed longitudinally.
Clinical
|
MYC (V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 1) • MTAP (Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase) • CDKN2B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B)
|
MYC amplification • DNMT3A mutation
4ms
AXL as a therapeutic target in adenoid cystic carcinoma: preclinical evaluation of AXL targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADCT-601) (AACR 2022)
This study demonstrated that ADCT-601 induced a potent and specific in vitro and in-vivo anti-tumor activities in AXL expressing ACC models and suggests further development of ADCT-601 in biomarker driven clinical trials.
Preclinical • Late-breaking abstract
|
AXL (AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase)
|
AXL expression • AXL-L
|
mipasetamab uzoptirine (ADCT-601)
4ms
Oncocytoid Variant of High-Grade Salivary Duct Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall. A Report on Two Patients. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Potential difficulty exists in distinguishing the oncocytoid variant of SDC, a rare and relatively bland tumor, from oncocytoma, a more commonly encountered entity. AR expression can aid in the correct diagnosis.
Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR expression
4ms
Outcome of Ordinary Polymorphous Adenocarcinomas of the Salivary Glands in Comparison With Papillary and Cribriform Subtypes. (PubMed, Anticancer Res)
Diagnostic algorithms for the PAC/CASG spectrum of tumors need to be improved and should include molecular markers.
Journal
|
PRKD1 (Protein Kinase D1)
4ms
Clear Cell Neoplasms of Salivary Glands: A Diagnostic Challenge. (PubMed, Adv Anat Pathol)
Many salivary gland tumors are characterized by tumor type-specific genomic alterations, particularly gene fusions of the ETV6 gene in secretory carcinoma, the MYB and MYBL1 genes in adenoid cystic carcinoma, the MAML2 gene in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the EWSR1 gene in hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and others. Thus, along with conventional histopathologic examination and immunoprofiling, molecular and genetic tests may be important in the diagnosis of salivary gland clear cell tumors by demonstrating genetic alterations specific to them.
Journal
|
ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • MYBL1 (MYB Proto-Oncogene Like 1)
4ms
Establishment of a patient-derived mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line with the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene. (PubMed, Mol Clin Oncol)
The results predicted that AREG-EGFR signaling, which is required for tumor growth and survival, might be activated in the cell line in a cell-autonomous manner. As AREG expression is associated with EGFR-targeted drug resistance, this cell line might assist with the identification of novel strategies for MEC treatment.
Preclinical • Journal
|
AREG (Amphiregulin) • CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
AREG expression • CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
4ms
Salivary duct carcinoma: A report of 70 FNA cases and review of the literature. (PubMed, Cancer Cytopathol)
FNA biopsy is accurate and reliable in classifying SDC as a malignant neoplasm, but much less so for identification as a specific tumor type. Using the Milan system, 86% of aspirates were classified as either malignant or suspicious for malignancy. A recurring pitfall includes sampling error in cases of SDC ex pleomorphic adenoma.
Review • Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
4ms
MutSα expression predicts a lower disease-free survival in malignant salivary gland tumors: an immunohistochemical study. (PubMed, Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal)
Our findings suggest that a lack of hMSH3 protein function is associated with a more aggressive phenotype (malignancy and perineural invasion) and that MutSα overexpression predicts a poor clinical outcome in malignant SGT.
Journal
|
MSH6 (MutS homolog 6) • MSH2 (MutS Homolog 2) • MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3)
|
MSH6 expression
4ms
miR-22 and miR-205 Drive Tumor Aggressiveness of Mucoepidermoid Carcinomas of Salivary Glands. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
Our results indicate a distinct transcriptomic profile of MEC compared to NSG, and the integrative analysis highlighted miRNA-mRNA interactions involving cancer-related pathways, including PTEN and PI3K/AKT. The in vitro functional studies revealed that miR-22 and miR-205 deficiencies reduced the viability, migration, and invasion of the MEC cells suggesting they are potential oncogenic drivers in MEC.
Journal
|
ER (Estrogen receptor) • PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • MIR139 (MicroRNA 139) • MIR363 (MicroRNA 363) • MIR145 (MicroRNA 145) • MIR148A (MicroRNA 148a) • MIR205 (MicroRNA 205) • ZEB2 (Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox 2)
|
ER expression
4ms
A Contemporary Review of Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
Other notable molecular targets that have been studied include the cKIT receptor, the EGFR pathway, and NOTCH1, all with limited efficacy in clinical trials. The ongoing investigation of molecular abnormalities underpinning ACC that may be responsible for carcinogenesis is critical to identifying and developing novel targeted therapies.
Review • Journal
|
NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
4ms
STARTRK-2: Basket Study of Entrectinib (RXDX-101) for the Treatment of Patients With Solid Tumors Harboring NTRK 1/2/3 (Trk A/B/C), ROS1, or ALK Gene Rearrangements (Fusions) (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=700, Recruiting, Hoffmann-La Roche | Trial completion date: Dec 2024 --> Apr 2025 | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2022 --> Dec 2024
Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • Pan tumor
|
NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1) • ROS1 (Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ROS) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • NTRK2 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2)
|
ALK rearrangement • ROS1 rearrangement
|
Xalkori (crizotinib) • Rozlytrek (entrectinib)
4ms
Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) and Pembrolizumab for Advanced Stage Androgen Receptor-positive Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=20, Recruiting, Manish Patel | Trial completion date: Jan 2023 --> Jan 2024 | Trial primary completion date: Jan 2022 --> Jan 2023
Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • goserelin acetate
4ms
Misleading Morphologic and Phenotypic Features (Transdifferentiation) in Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Head and Neck: Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
The tumors originated in the oral minor salivary glands, the base of the tongue, and sinonasal tract and closely resembled hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified and biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, respectively. All cases were positive for cytokeratins, variably expressed S100 protein, showed diffuse nuclear STAT6 positivity, and harbored NAB2::STAT6 gene fusions.
Review • Journal
|
STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
4ms
The Role of the EZH2 and H3K27me3 Expression as a Predictor of Clinical Outcomes in Salivary Duct Carcinoma Patients: A Large-Series Study With Emphasis on the Relevance to the Combined Androgen Blockade and HER2-Targeted Therapy. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
The EZH2 and H3K27me3 immunohistochemical expression and EZH2 Y646 gain-of-function mutation status were examined in 226 SDCs, and the relationship with the clinicopathological factors as well as clinical outcomes were evaluated within the three groups depending on the treatment: AR-targeted (combined androgen blockade with leuprorelin acetate and bicalutamide; 89 cases), HER2-targeted (trastuzumab and docetaxel; 42 cases), and conventional therapy (112 cases). A high expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in SDC might be a predictor of a poor efficacy of AR-targeted therapy. Our data provide new insights into the role of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in therapeutic strategies for SDC.
Clinical data • Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor) • EZH2 (Enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit)
|
EZH2 mutation • EZH2 Y646
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • docetaxel • bicalutamide • leuprolide acetate for depot suspension
4ms
9-ING-41 Plus Carboplatin in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=0, Withdrawn, Actuate Therapeutics Inc. | N=40 --> 0 | Trial completion date: Jun 2024 --> Jun 2034 | Initiation date: Sep 2021 --> Dec 2030 | Recruiting --> Withdrawn | Trial primary completion date: Jun 2023 --> Jun 2033
Enrollment change • Trial completion date • Trial initiation date • Trial withdrawal • Trial primary completion date
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2)
|
carboplatin • elraglusib (9-ING-41)
4ms
Salivary gland papillary adenocarcinoma with intestinal-like features: Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic study of six cases. (PubMed, J Oral Pathol Med)
We describe 6 cases of salivary gland papillary adenocarcinoma with intestinal-like mucinous cytologic features, which are different from conventional intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, presenting a consistent immunophenotype of CK7 & MUC1 positive, CK20 & CDX2 negative and exhibiting recurrent AKT1 E17K mutations.
Clinical • Journal
|
AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • MUC1 (Mucin 1) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • CDX-2 • MUC2 • MUC5AC (Mucin 5AC)
|
AKT1 E17K • AKT1 mutation
5ms
Detection of EWSR1 fusions in CCOC by targeted RNA-seq. (PubMed, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol)
These results demonstrate that targeted RNA-seq is a valuable tool to detect fusions in FFPE samples of rare tumors such as CCOC and CCC. The results also confirm the observations that CCOC is driven by fusions between EWSR1 and CREB family transcription factors, including ATF1 and CREM. To our knowledge, this is the second report of CCOC with an EWSR1-CREM translocation.
Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • FLI1 (Fli-1 Proto-Oncogene ETS Transcription Factor) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1)
|
EWSR1-FLI1 fusion
5ms
Study of A166 in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Cancers Expressing HER2 Antigen or Having Amplified HER2 Gene (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1/2, N=49, Active, not recruiting, Klus Pharma Inc. | Recruiting --> Active, not recruiting | N=82 --> 49
Enrollment closed • Enrollment change
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 expression
|
A166
5ms
Treatment Efficacy of PD-1 Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Salivary Gland Carcinoma. (PubMed, Anticancer Res)
Although the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitor therapy in R/M SGC is limited, certain patients may respond and achieve long-term disease control. There is a potential therapeutic effect in SDC patients with positive PD-L1 expression.
Retrospective data • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression
5ms
Reconstruction and analysis of the aberrant lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network based on competitive endogenous RNA in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland. (PubMed, Transl Cancer Res)
By constructing ceRNA network, NONHSAT251752.1-hsa-miR-6817-5p-NOTCH1, NONHSAT251752.1-hsa-miR-204-5p/hsa-miR-138-5p-CDK6 regulatory axises were identified and all genes in the network were verified by qRT-PCR. The present study constructed ceRNA networks in SACC and provided a novel perspective of the molecular mechanisms for SACC.
Journal
|
NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • CDK6 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 6) • MIR138 (MicroRNA 138)
5ms
Diagnosis and treatment of secretory carcinoma arising from the oral minor salivary gland: Two case reports. (PubMed, Medicine (Baltimore))
It is highly likely for many cases of SC to be initially diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) owing to their similar histological findings. The treatment strategy for minor salivary gland-originated SC is similar to that of AciCC; however, SC is often highly malignant and involves a high risk of cervical lymph node metastasis. Thus, establishing an accurate diagnosis together with pathologists and confirming the presence of the ETS variant 6-neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 3 fusion gene using genetic analysis is important.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
5ms
Pulmonary epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (P-EMC) with focal high grade transformation: Molecular and cytologic findings. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
Due to the rarity of P-EMC, insufficient sampling and histologic heterogeneity, diagnosis of P-EMC on preoperative core needle biopsy or FNA specimen is difficult. Herein, we present a rare case of P-EMC, with a pre-operative FNA cytology specimen that consisted of tumor cells with dense cytoplasm and moderate cytologic atypia, strong positive staining pattern of p40, that was misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Follow up surgical resection showed P-EMC with focal high grade transformation. Salivary gland EMCs with high grade transformation have previously been reported to have a worse prognosis, however, little is known about the malignant potential in the lung. Next generation sequencing (NGS) using a 397-gene solid tumor panel identified variants in DNMT3A, APC, STAT3 in both low and high grade components, while KDM5C was present only in the high grade transformation.
Journal
|
DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 1) • STAT3 (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3) • KDM5C (Lysine Demethylase 5C)
5ms
Excessive toxicity of cabozantinib in a phase II study in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland cancer. (PubMed, Eur J Cancer)
This study showed too many severe cabozantinib-associated wound complications in patients with SGC, especially in prior irradiated areas. Therefore, the study closed prematurely. The efficacy in the limited number of evaluable patients was low to moderate.
Clinical • P2 data • Clinical Trial,Phase II • Journal
|
MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
MET positive
|
Cabometyx (cabozantinib tablet)
5ms
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression Helps Distinguish Pleomorphic Adenoma from Histologic Mimics. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Other benign tumours composed of abluminal/myoepithelial cells also show focal expression of GFAP, highlighting the spectrum these tumours share with PA. Overall, the presence of strong and diffuse GFAP expression can favour a benign neoplasm, specifically a PA, on limited biopsy specimens.
Journal
|
GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
5ms
Ameloblastoma with adenoid features: Case report with cyto-histopathologic correlation and molecular findings. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
This case exemplifies several uncommonly described features of ameloblastomas in cytology, including cyto-histologic correlation, adenoid morphology, and NGS findings. Awareness of the cytologic features of this neoplasm are important for cytopathologists confronted with maxillary sinus lesions.
Journal
|
FGFR2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2)
6ms
Head and Neck Acinic Cell Carcinoma: A New Grading System Proposal and Diagnostic Utility of NR4A3 Immunohistochemistry. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
In conclusion, although we proposed a 2-tiered grading system for AciCC with high-grade tumors defined by a mitotic count ≥5/10 HPFs and/or necrosis, more studies are needed to assess the prognostic value of intermediate grade. NR4A3 immunohistochemical stain is a useful diagnostic marker for AciCC.
Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3)
6ms
PCP4/PEP19 and HER2 Are Novel Prognostic Markers in Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
Patients that were PCP4/PEP19-positive and HER2-negative showed similar outcomes to PCP4/PEP19 and HER2 alone. Therefore, PCP4/PEP19 and HER2 are predicted to play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of MEC.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 negative • HER-2 expression
6ms
Potential biomarkers and signaling pathways associated with the pathogenesis of primary salivary gland carcinoma: a bioinformatics study. (PubMed, Genomics Inform)
SPIB, FOXM1, and POLR2A significantly regulate all the hub genes. This study illustrated several hub genes and their master regulators that might be appropriate targets for the therapeutic aims of primary SGC.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • NOTCH1 (Notch 1) • PDGFRB (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Beta) • SPP1 (Secreted Phosphoprotein 1) • EGF (Epidermal growth factor) • COL1A1 (Collagen, type I, alpha 1) • FOXM1 (Forkhead Box M1) • CCNB1 (Cyclin B1)
6ms
Clinical • Trial completion • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2)
|
Opdivo (nivolumab)
6ms
Clinicopathological investigation of secretory carcinoma cases including a successful treatment outcome using entrectinib for high-grade transformation: a case report. (PubMed, BMC Med Genomics)
High-grade transformed SC showed aggressive clinical and pathological features with increased Ki-67 labeling index. Molecular genetic study of gene rearrangement appears to be beneficial treatment as the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 translocation may represent a therapeutic target in SC, particularly the high-grade transformed type.
Clinical • Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • STAT5A (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 5A)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
|
Rozlytrek (entrectinib)
6ms
Frankly Invasive Carcinoma Ex-intraductal Carcinoma: Expanding on an Emerging and Perplexing Concept in Salivary Gland Tumor Pathology. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Because RET and ALK fusions are targetable, it is important to recognize the broad spectrum of frankly invasive carcinomas that can arise from IDC, particularly because some cases are completely overrun or recur without any recognizable IDC component. These results suggest fusion analysis may be of clinical benefit on any salivary gland (adeno) carcinoma, not otherwise specified or salivary duct carcinoma.
Journal
|
ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase) • AR (Androgen receptor) • STRN (Striatin) • TRIM33 (Tripartite Motif Containing 33) • NCOA4 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 4) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • TRIM3 (Tripartite Motif Containing 3) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
ALK fusion
6ms
Combination of Nanoxel and Herzuma in Salivary Duct Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=41, Active, not recruiting, Samsung Medical Center | Trial completion date: Aug 2022 --> Aug 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Aug 2021 --> Sep 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive
|
Herzuma (trastuzumab biosimilar)
6ms
ERBB2 amplification status in 67 salivary duct carcinomas assessed by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and targeted exome sequencing. (PubMed, Mod Pathol)
Approximately 30% SDC harbor HER2 amplification and response to trastuzumab has been reported...FC and TCN were binarized with respective cutoffs of ≥1.8 and ≥6.0 and the proportion of agreement with FISH were 95% and 92%, respectively. The assessment of ERBB2 copy number by NGS is accurate and reliable with FC or TCN nearly equivalent to FISH in identifying HER2 amplified SDC.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 amplification • HER-2 overexpression
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab)
6ms
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A challenging case arising in a young man with radiation exposure. (PubMed, Ann Diagn Pathol)
The cytologic features of MASC are not entirely distinctive and can simulate acinic cell carcinoma, but the tumor harbors an ETV6 gene rearrangement resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. We present a case of MASC arising in a 31 year old man with a history of multiple radio-embolization procedures.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
6ms
Cytopathological Findings of Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland and the Diagnostic Utility of Giemsa Staining. (PubMed, Diagnostics (Basel))
Giemsa staining revealed cytoplasmic vacuolation, intracytoplasmic metachromatic secretions and/or various sized metachromatic granules, and a background of metachromatic mucin in all four specimens. Given this, we conclude that these cytological findings, especially those of the Giemsa staining, might be helpful in the diagnosis of secretory carcinoma.
Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
6ms
A mechanistic basis for the malignant progression of salivary gland tumors. (PubMed, iScience)
Lineage tracing experiments showed that SLG tumor cells undergo an extensive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TGF-β-responding tumor cells are a source of mesenchymal tumor cells invading the surrounding stroma. This study advances our understanding of the mechanistic basis of salivary gland malignancy and may help combat this highly heterogeneous cancer.
Journal
|
HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • SOX2 • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
6ms
Lysosomal and cytoskeletal events in epithelial salivary tumours as assessed by imunohistochemistry for CD63 and HSP27. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
Expression of CD63 is preferentially associated with differentiated or simple luminal cell phenotypes in epithelial salivary tumours and possibly reflects autophagy of secretory granules or absorption of luminal material. Expression of HSP27 is preferentially associated with non-luminal cells and possibly reflects remodelling of the cytoskeleton.
Journal
|
HSPB1 (Heat shock 27kDa protein 1)
|
HSPB1 expression
6ms
Aspiration cytology of pleomorphic adenoma with squamous metaplasia: A case series and literature review illustrating diagnostic challenges. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
Squamous metaplasia in PAs is not associated with adverse outcomes, but may induce reactive changes upon aspiration/irritation, resulting in worrisome cytologic features. PLAG1 IHC is a useful adjunct when characteristic cytologic features for PAs are absent or obscured. Prudent use of the diagnostic category salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (SUMP) in the Milan system can avoid overtreatment.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger)
7ms
Integrative analysis of long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs associated with tumorigenesis of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. (PubMed, Arch Oral Biol)
These data suggested that the differently expressed lncRNAs may contribute to the tumorigenesis of SGPA, and analyzing the differences in the lncRNA expression profiles may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of SGPA.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • CCND1 (Cyclin D1) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor 2) • PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger) • MIR195 (MicroRNA 195)
7ms
NUT Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland: A Case at This Uncommon Site with Review of the Literature. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Salivary gland is an unusual site for NUT carcinoma and is rarely described in submandibular gland. We reviewed the clinicopathologic features of this entity at this site along with role of NUTM1 gene rearrangements in NUT tumorigenesis.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
BRD4 (Bromodomain Containing 4) • NUTM1 (NUT Midline Carcinoma Family Member 1)
7ms
A Case Report of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma With Extensive Keratinization in Parotid: Expanding the Morphologic Spectrum. (PubMed, Int J Surg Pathol)
MAML2 gene break-apart and CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This is the first report to describe a MEC case with extensive squamous metaplasia and overt keratin pearls formation, which expands the morphologic spectrum of MEC.
Clinical • Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
7ms
Discovery proteomics reveals potential protein signature associated with malignant phenotype acquisition in pleomorphic adenoma. (PubMed, Oral Dis)
In this work, we demonstrated the comparative proteomic profiling of PA, residual PA, and CXPA, and seven were proposed as protein signatures, some of which may be associated with the malignant phenotype acquisition.
Journal
|
APOA1 (Apolipoprotein A-I)
7ms
Is Salivary Duct Carcinoma an Apocrine Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands? Immunohistochemical Evaluation for AR, GCDFP-15, GATA3, p62(squestosome1) and FABP7 in 106 Cases (USCAP 2022)
In conclusion, some subgroup of SDC should be called “apocrine carcinoma of the salivary glands”, due to the positivity for AR, GCDFP-15, p62, GATA3 and FABP7, such as ACB. In the cases of CXPA, the luminal cells of PA may acquire the malignant features of SDC, accompanying the apocrine differentiation, especially, in the progression process from atypical PA to early phase of CXPA (intracapsular subtype): This process is related to "adenoma-carcinoma sequence" of salivary glands.
Clinical
|
AR (Androgen receptor) • SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
AR expression
7ms
Analysis of clinicopathologic features and expression of NR4A3 in sinonasal acinic cell carcinoma. (PubMed, Mod Pathol)
Our study demonstrated that sinonasal AiCCs are characterized by an indolent nature and histopathological similarity to parotid AiCCs. Moreover, NR4A3 is a reliable biomarker for distinguishing sinonasal AiCCs from other sinonasal carcinomas.
Clinical • Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3) • CA9 (Carbonic anhydrase 9) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
7ms
VUBAR: Repeatability of 68-GaNOTA-Anti-HER2 VHH1 PET/CT in Breast Carcinoma Patients (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=55, Recruiting, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel | N=20 --> 55 | Trial completion date: Dec 2022 --> Dec 2024 | Trial primary completion date: Nov 2022 --> Nov 2024
Clinical • Enrollment change • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 expression • HER-2-H
7ms
Metatypical Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Variant Showing Prominent Squamous Differentiation With a Predilection for the Sinonasal Tract and Skull Base. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
Recently, we have come across 3 cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas involving the sinonasal tract and skull base having extensive interconnecting trabecular growth, macrocysts, and squamous differentiation, yet demonstrating the signature fusions involving MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB by RNA sequencing. In this article, we describe the clinical, histomorphologic, and imaging findings of these cases and propose the appellation "metatypical adenoid cystic carcinoma" for this uncommon variant morphology.
Journal
|
NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
7ms
Squamoglandular Variant of Acinic Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report of a Novel Variant. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Based on these findings, this tumor is best considered a "squamoglandular variant of acinic cell carcinoma." Morphologic and clinical evidence argues against this representing a form of high-grade transformation. While overall bland, the differential diagnosis may include various basaloid tumors in the parotid gland, both primary and metastatic.
Clinical • Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
7ms
Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Parotid: A Case Report with Imaging Findings. (PubMed, Am J Case Rep)
She had a past history of left breast cancer 6 years ago, treated by left modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and trastuzumab...CONCLUSIONS We report a rare case of metastasis from breast cancer to the parotid gland, with imaging findings including neck ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography. Breast cancer rarely metastasizes to the parotid gland, but radiologists should be aware of this possibility, especially in patients with a prior history of breast cancer.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • AR (Androgen receptor)
|
HER-2 negative • HER-2 expression • ER expression
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab)
7ms
Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 23 patients with secretory carcinoma of major salivary glands. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
SCSGs are typically indolent, with a low locoregional recurrence rate and excellent survival. Prognosis is correlated to clinical stage, pathological grade, and surgical procedures.
Clinical • Journal
|
ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
7ms
Intrasalivary Thymic Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
We postulate that similar cases should be designated as intrasalivary thymic carcinoma analogically to similar thyroid tumors. Our case and the limited literature data indicate they should be distinguished from conventional squamous cell carcinoma of major salivary glands due to their rather favorable prognosis.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
CD5 positive
8ms
Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated head and neck carcinomas. (PubMed, Semin Diagn Pathol)
Overall, these tumors often represent a diagnostic challenge, especially in small biopsies. This review summarizes and discuss the diagnostic approach to the main head and neck carcinoma types that frequently or occasionally display an undifferentiated appearance, with a focus on salivary gland, oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal and sinonasal subsites.
Review • Journal
|
NUTM1 (NUT Midline Carcinoma Family Member 1)
8ms
Genomic alteration in rare subtype of sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
Clinicopathological features of sarcomatoid SDCs were not different from typical SDC, and genomic alteration according to subtypes was also similar to that of the conventional type. Androgen receptor (AR) expression is helpful in the diagnosis of SDC. The findings indicate that EMA and AR are useful in diagnosing sarcomatoid SDC when the tumor is composed of predominantly sarcomatoid components.
Journal
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR expression
8ms
iPRIME: Pembrolizumab With Chemotherapy for Poorly Chemo-responsive Thyroid and Salivary Gland Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=46, Recruiting, University of Chicago | Trial primary completion date: Sep 2021 --> Sep 2022
Trial primary completion date
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • docetaxel
8ms
Expanding the clinicopathological spectrum of TGFBR3-PLAG1 rearranged salivary gland neoplasms with myoepithelial differentiation including evidence of high-grade transformation. (PubMed, Genes Chromosomes Cancer)
However, evidence of minimal invasion advocates classification as low-grade myoepithelial carcinoma. This case series further characterizes the spectrum of uncommon cellular myoepithelial neoplasms harboring TGFBR3-PLAG1 fusion, which show recurrent minimal invasion of the adjacent salivary gland tissue, a predilection to the deep lobe of the parotid gland and potential high-grade transformation.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PLAG1 (PLAG1 Zinc Finger)
|
TP53 mutation • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 mutation
8ms
Low Mutational Burden of Extra Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Patients with Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome (ASH 2021)
The low mutational load and lack of a clear lymphoma related gene signature suggests that localized pSS MALT lymphomas are genetically stable and most likely depend on the inflammatory state of the micro-environment. Only those cases characterized by higher mutational load showed a relapse-remitting disease, as is typical for indolent lymphoma. These observations could be translated to the clinical setting and potentially have value as biomarker for identification of patients with a more aggressive disease.
Clinical • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • PAX5 (Paired Box 5) • MALT1 (MALT1 Paracaspase) • MUC4 (Mucin 4, Cell Surface Associated) • IGLL5 (Immunoglobulin Lambda Like Polypeptide 5) • PRKD1 (Protein Kinase D1)
|
TMB-L
8ms
DART: Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=818, Recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial completion date: Aug 2022 --> Oct 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Aug 2022 --> Oct 2023
Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
PD-L1 overexpression • PD-L1 amplification
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Yervoy (ipilimumab)
8ms
[VIRTUAL] Identification of Salivary Gland Tumors (SGT) at Risk for Local or Distant Recurrence After Postoperative Radiation Therapy (PORT) With or Without Systemic Therapy (ST) Using Clinical Risk Grouping (ASTRO 2021)
Regimens included carboplatin + paclitaxel, cisplatin, and concurrent/adjuvant trastuzumab (in 10 pts with HER2-positive SGT). DM are the primary mode of recurrence in pts with resected SGT treated with PORT +/- ST and occurred only in high-risk pts. After randomized trials like RTOG 1008 determine the added benefit of chemo to PORT, DM is likely to remain an unmet need. Further studies incorporating molecular characterization of high-grade SGT may identify potentially actionable targets to prevent distant recurrence.
Clinical
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • NF1 (Neurofibromin 1)
|
TP53 mutation • HER-2 positive • PIK3CA mutation • NF1 mutation • HRAS mutation
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • cisplatin • carboplatin • paclitaxel
8ms
ETV6-NTRK3-positive parotid mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: a case report. (PubMed, Rom J Morphol Embryol)
It is necessary to establish an appropriated differential diagnosis between salivary gland tumors. MASC is a low-grade malignancy cancer that sometimes can evolve to a high-grade tumor that might produce local and distance dissemination. Most times, these tumors are only treated by surgical resection and evaluating by a multidisciplinary team the need of more treatments. In our case, the patient showed a primary parotid tumor, removed surgically with free edges, and being identified as MASC. We decided to underwent neck dissection and discovered a second MASC focus on cervical salivary gland; however, there was no nodal dissemination. The patient remains disease-free after 14 months from last surgery. It is important to keep studying genetic therapy targets to ETV6-NTRK3 to obtain a new therapy line to treat those cases that require.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • NTRK3 positive • NTRK positive
8ms
Identification of Salivary Gland Tumors (SGT) at Risk for Local or Distant Recurrence After Postoperative Radiation Therapy (PORT) With or Without Systemic Therapy (ST) Using Clinical Risk Grouping. (PubMed, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys)
DM are the primary mode of recurrence in pts with resected SGT treated with PORT +/- ST and occurred only in high-risk pts. After randomized trials like RTOG 1008 determine the added benefit of chemo to PORT, DM is likely to remain an unmet need. Further studies incorporating molecular characterization of high-grade SGT may identify potentially actionable targets to prevent distant recurrence.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • NF1 (Neurofibromin 1)
|
TP53 mutation • HER-2 positive • PIK3CA mutation • NF1 mutation • HRAS mutation
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • cisplatin • carboplatin • paclitaxel
8ms
Detection of novel fusion genes by next-generation sequencing-based targeted RNA sequencing analysis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck. (PubMed, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol)
Six novel gene fusions other than MYB/MYBL1-NFIB were identified. The detection of novel fusion genes and investigation of the molecular mechanism will contribute to the development of novel molecular targeted therapies for this disease.
Journal • Next-generation sequencing
|
NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
|
MYB-NFIB fusion
8ms
Reduction of Elective Radiotherapy Treatment Volume in Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer-Comparison of a Prospective Trial with a Revised Simulated Contouring Approach. (PubMed, J Clin Med)
Treatment de-intensification by reduction of the irradiated volume could potentially reduce treatment volume and mean doses to organs at risk. The proposed contouring approach should be studied further in the context of a clinical trial.
Clinical • Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
8ms
Clear cell carcinoma: a comprehensive literature review of 254 cases. (PubMed, Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg)
Molecular features were reported in 113 cases; 96.0% were positive for an EWSR1 rearrangement by EWSR1 break apart FISH testing and 14.8% were positive for the rearrangement EWSR1-ATF1 tested by qPCR or targeted RNA sequencing. Clinical patterns and genetic studies imply that this tumor is the extraosseous counterpart of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, an intraosseous odontogenic tumor of the jaws.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
8ms
Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: Histological variants, grading systems, CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions, and clinicopathological features. (PubMed, Histopathology)
Recognition of the histological diversity of MEC, its clinicopathological features, and its associations with CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions is helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this carcinoma.
Clinical • Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
9ms
Treatment patterns and outcomes of palliative systemic therapy in patients with salivary duct carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. (PubMed, Cancer)
Adding systemic therapy to local therapy may improve outcomes of patients with locoregionally advanced SDC or adeno-NOS. Except for HER2-targeted therapy, response to palliative systemic therapy is limited. These findings may be used as a benchmark for future drug development.
Clinical • Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
HER-2 positive • AR positive
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab)
9ms
Migration Stimulating Factor (MSF): Its Role in the Tumour Microenvironment. (PubMed, Adv Exp Med Biol)
Thus, different bioactive motifs and extracellular matrix requirements apply to fibroblasts, endothelial cells and tumour cells. Unlike other motogenic and angiogenic factors, MSF does not affect cell proliferation but it stimulates tumour growth through its angiogenic effect and downstream mechanisms.The epithelial-stromal pattern of expression and range of bioactivities displayed puts MSF in the unique position of potentially promoting tumour progression from both the "seed" and the "soil" perspectives.
Journal
|
FN1 (Fibronectin 1) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1) • IGFBP7 (Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7)
9ms
Overexpression of LAG3, TIM3 and A2aR in adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, Oral Dis)
These results suggested that LAG3, TIM3 and A2aR are overexpressed in AdCC and MEC, may promote migration of SACC-LM cell and correlated with TGF-β1 and oncogenic signaling pathways.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
LAG3 (Lymphocyte Activating 3) • HAVCR2 (Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1)
|
HAVCR2 expression • LAG3 expression • LAG3 overexpression
9ms
Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) of the salivary gland: Report of 2 cases of a hitherto under-recognized extrathyroid counterpart. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
Salivary CASTLEs seem to show a wide range of biological behavior, and long-term follow-up may be needed. Immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting PD-1 might become a promising treatment option in patients with CASTLE; however, further study with a larger number of cases is necessary to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy and prognostic factors for this rare cancer.
Clinical • Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • CD5 (CD5 Molecule)
|
PD-L1 expression
9ms
[VIRTUAL] A RARE INTRABRONCHIAL TUMOR PRESENTING WITH RECURRENT PNEUMONIA AND HEMOPTYSIS IN A YOUNG CHILD DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC (CHEST 2021)
Our case presents a bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a child. Close follow up and recognition of uncommon findings led to the diagnosis of this rare cause of pneumonia in the midst of a global pandemic.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
9ms
Ex Vivo Drug Screening Informed Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Parotid Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
The drug targets discovered on the basis of the ex vivo measured drug efficacy were validated with histopathology, genomic profiling, and in vitro cell biology methods, and targeted treatments with durable clinical responses were achieved. These results demonstrate the use of serial ex vivo drug screening to inform adjuvant therapy options prior to and during treatment and highlight HER2 as a potential therapy target also in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the salivary glands.
Preclinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine)
9ms
Secretory Carcinoma in Children and Young Adults: A Case Series. (PubMed, Pediatr Dev Pathol)
All cases underwent complete surgical resections and when follow up is available there was no evidence of recurrences or metastases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only SC case series comprised exclusively of pediatric and youth patients.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
9ms
PI3K Inhibitor BKM120 and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1/2, N=12, Completed, University of Chicago | Active, not recruiting --> Completed
Clinical • Trial completion • Combination therapy
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor)
|
Erbitux (cetuximab) • buparlisib (AN2025)
9ms
Abiraterone Acetate in Patients With Castration-Resistant, Androgen Receptor-Expressing Salivary Gland Cancer: A Phase II Trial. (PubMed, J Clin Oncol)
Abiraterone plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist is active and safe as a second-line option in AR-expressing, castration-resistant SGC.
Clinical • P2 data • Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive • AR overexpression • AR expression
|
abiraterone acetate • prednisone
9ms
Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
9ms
Cytomorphologic fatures of intraductal salivary gland carcinoma: A multi-institutional study of 13 FNA cases with histologic, molecular, and clinical correlations. (PubMed, Cancer Cytopathol)
The cytomorphology of IDC overlaps with other benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Immunohistochemistry limits the differential diagnosis, but definitive classification requires molecular analysis. A diagnosis of IDC has potential implications for patient management.
Clinical • Journal
|
PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • AR (Androgen receptor) • NCOA4 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 4) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
PIK3CA mutation • RET fusion • HRAS mutation • NCOA4-RET fusion
9ms
9-ING-41 Plus Carboplatin in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=40, Recruiting, Actuate Therapeutics Inc. | Not yet recruiting --> Recruiting
Clinical • Enrollment open
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2)
|
carboplatin • elraglusib (9-ING-41)
9ms
Proteasome inhibition by bortezomib parallels a reduction in head and neck cancer cells growth, and an increase in tumor-infiltrating immune cells. (PubMed, Sci Rep)
In addition, Bortezomib modified the expression of proteasome structural subunits in transplanted SALTO-5 cells. Our findings further support the use of Bortezomib for the treatment of HNC and reveal its ineffectiveness in counteracting the activation of deregulated specific signaling pathways in HNC cell lines when resistance to proteasome inhibition is developed.
Journal
|
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) • CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
bortezomib
9ms
Role of GATA3 in tumor diagnosis: A review. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
GATA3 can also be used as a useful prognostic tool. Although GATA3 is a multi-specific immunohistochemical stain, it is a valuable marker in the panel for confirming many epithelial or mesenchymal neoplasms as both a diagnostic and prognostic tool.
Review • Journal
|
GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Recurrent Clear Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland 18 Years After Primary Diagnosis: Cytology Case Report and Review of Literature (CAP 2021)
The keys to distinguish CCC on cytology are the proliferation of one type of epithelial cell with squamous differentiation, solid pattern, low-grade cytology, minimal atypia, vacuolated or clear cytoplasm, absence of myoepithelial or prominent mucinous differentiation, lack of mucinous stroma and obvious keratinization, and the support of a panel of immunohistochemical stains. Fewer than 10 cytology cases of CCC have been reported in literature.
Clinical • Review
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Oncocytic Lipoadenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Focus on the Differential Diagnoses (CAP 2021)
However, lack of atypia and mitotic activity, as well as noninfiltrative growth (usually confirmed in the surgical excision) help to confirm the diagnosis. Other primary differential diagnoses include oncocytoma, Whartin tumor, and nodular oncocytic hyperplasia.
Clinical
|
PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Mucinous Epithelium From the Nasal Sinuses: A Clinically Significant Differential Diagnosis (CAP 2021)
Fragments of pure mucinous epithelium are rare in sinonasal specimens and raise the differential diagnosis of the mucinous epithelium in respiratory adenomatoid hamartoma, intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. These lesions present as masses/polyps and are usually associated with abundant neoplastic epithelium with cytologic atypia. The reported cases appear to represent rare mucinous metaplasia with a benign course.
Clinical
|
CDX-2 • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
Diagnostic utility of p63/p40 in the histologic differentiation of salivary gland tumors: A systematic review. (PubMed, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol)
The current evidence supports that integrated immunostaining of p63/p40 is a valuable adjunct for discerning enigmatic salivary gland tumors with true myoepithelial and/or squamous differentiation.
Review • Journal
|
TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
Sclerosing Polycystic Adenoma of Salivary Glands: A Novel Neoplasm Characterized by PI3K-AKT Pathway Alterations-New Insights Into a Challenging Entity. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
These prevalent molecular alterations converging on one major cancer-related pathway support the notion that SPA is a true neoplasm with a significant potential to develop intraluminal epithelial proliferation with apocrine and/or intercalated duct-like phenotype. The name SPA more correctly reflects the true neoplastic nature of this enigmatic lesion.
Journal
|
PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • AR (Androgen receptor) • AKT1 (V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10)
|
PIK3CA mutation • PTEN mutation • HRAS mutation • AKT1 mutation
10ms
Incidence and Prognostic Significance of PD-L1 Expression in High-Grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
The expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells of high-grade SGCs was not uncommon, and it was significantly associated with tumor stage. PD-L1 expression in tumor cells rather than in immune cells indicated a poor prognosis.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression
10ms
Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3)
10ms
Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland: A Rarity in Children. (PubMed, J Pediatr Hematol Oncol)
One patient was additionally found to have synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma with a TFG-MET fusion. A review of published cases highlights the expanding molecular profile and confirms the favorable course of salivary gland SC after surgical resection.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • MET fusion
10ms
Study of A166 in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Cancers Expressing HER2 Antigen or Having Amplified HER2 Gene (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1/2, N=82, Recruiting, Klus Pharma Inc. | Trial completion date: Dec 2021 --> Dec 2022 | Trial primary completion date: Apr 2021 --> Apr 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 expression • HER-2 underexpression
|
A166
10ms
Characterization of tumor-associated MUC1 and its glycans expressed in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, Oncol Lett)
These data were obtained from the soluble fractions of salivary gland homogenates. These findings provide a basis for the utilization of MUC1 as a serum diagnostic marker for the preoperative diagnosis of MEC.
Journal
|
MUC1 (Mucin 1)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Acinic cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report of a rare triple negative breast cancer with unusual clinical course (ECP 2021)
ACC is an exceedingly rare type of low grade TNBC that is generally associated with indolent behaviour. This case, however, showed an unusual clinical outcome with early recurrence. The association with atypical microglandular adenosis is interesting as both lesions have been found to share similar molecular abnormalities, which supports their clonal relationship.
Clinical
|
PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • IDH1 (Isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 1) • IDH2 (Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Pulmonary mucous gland adenoma. A case report (ECP 2021)
Experienced pathologists should keep PGMA in mind since its differential diagnosis includes both benign and malignant entities. The collaboration of radiologists, pneumonologists and pathologists along with thorough sampling and immunohistochemical assays is mandatory for the accurate pathological diagnosis and appropriate therapy of the patient.
Clinical
|
NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • NAPSA (Napsin A Aspartic Peptidase)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A case report and literature review (ECP 2021)
ACC is an unusual type of breast carcinoma accounting for <0.1% of breast malignancies. It is characterized by a biphasic population of luminal and basaloid cells with pseudolumens filled with basement membrane material. The mean age at diagnosis is 66 years.
Clinical • Review
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • MME (Membrane Metalloendopeptidase) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] Case report: a 47-year-old man with a primary intraosseous carci- noma, NOS (ECP 2021)
PIOC is a diagnosis of exclusion. This aggressive central jaw carcinoma, assumed to derive from the odontogenic epithelium needs differential diagnosis with metastases, squamous odontogenic tumour, solid odontogenic keratocyst, keratinizing ameloblastoma and central high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological, clinical and radiographic features assure an accurate diagnosis.
Clinical
|
KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
10ms
[VIRTUAL] The first experience of NTRK testing in Russia. Multicentre research (ECP 2021)
The first NTRK multicentre research have found 8.7% IHC panTRK-positive tumours. Positive staining with confirmed NTRK fu- sion was seen in thyroid carcinoma, breast and salivary gland secretory carcinoma and infantile fibrosarcoma and mesoblastic nephroma.
Clinical
|
NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK positive • NTRK fusion
|
VENTANA pan-TRK (EPR17341) Assay
10ms
YATAGARASU: A Study of Apalutamide Combined With GnRH Agonist in Participants With Androgen Receptor Positive Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=31, Active, not recruiting, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K. | Trial completion date: Oct 2022 --> Jan 2023
Clinical • Trial completion date • Combination therapy
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive • AR expression
|
Erleada (apalutamide) • goserelin acetate
11ms
Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland - The first recorded case with histo-cytopathologic correlation and a brief review of the literature. (PubMed, Ann Diagn Pathol)
On immunohistochemistry, EMA, SOX-10, P63, and S-100 protein highlighted a dual cell population of luminal and abluminal cells. The cells were negative for CD117, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was low (<5%).
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
11ms
Sclerosing Polycystic Adenoma: Conclusive Clinical and Molecular Evidence of Its Neoplastic Nature. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Coexisting PTEN mutations were seen in 4 cases, including in a patient with clinical stigmata of Cowden syndrome and confirmed by germline genetic testing. Our findings herein documented including recurrence of tumor, malignant transformation, high prevalence of PI3K pathway oncogenic alterations and the possible heretofore undescribed association with Cowden syndrome add support to classifying SPA as true neoplasms justifying their designation as adenoma, rather than adenosis.
Clinical • Journal
|
PIK3CA (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) • PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) • PIK3R1 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Regulatory Subunit 1)
|
PIK3CA mutation • PTEN mutation • PTEN expression
11ms
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck: CRTC1/3 MAML 2 translocation and its prognosticators. (PubMed, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol)
MEC of the head and neck has a favorable outcome with the exception of high-grade MEC. PNI and nodal involvement are not rare. CRTC1/3 MAML 2 fusion gene presence showed no survival benefit. The tendency for late onset of loco-regional and distant recurrence should not be underestimated.
Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1)
11ms
DART: Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=818, Recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial primary completion date: Aug 2021 --> Aug 2022
Clinical • Trial primary completion date
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
PD-L1 overexpression • PD-L1 amplification
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Yervoy (ipilimumab)
11ms
Molecular mechanism underlying the apoptotic modulation by ethanol extract of Pseudolarix kaempferi in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. (PubMed, Cancer Cell Int)
This study revealed that EEPK-induced alterations of Mcl-1 inhibition and JNK/Bcl-2 phosphorylation cause apoptosis and provided basic preclinical data for future clinical trials regarding therapy for patients with MEC.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2) • MAPK8 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8)
|
BCL2 expression • MCL1 expression
11ms
Diagnostic value of biomarkers of bone metabolism in the gingival fluid in inflammatory-destructive and tumor oral pathology (PubMed, Stomatologiia (Mosk))
Thus, biochemical markers are sensitive indicators of remodeling of bone tissue both in local inflammatory and destructive processes in peri-implantitis and in primary and metastatic tumor lesions of the jaws.
Journal
|
CTSK (Cathepsin K)
11ms
Mutually Exclusive Expression of COL11A1 by CAFs and Tumour Cells in a Large panCancer and a Salivary Gland Carcinoma Cohort. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Our findings represent a novel mode of extracellular matrix production in carcinomas and could be highly relevant in the future. Our findings elucidate the mode of COL11A1 expression in very different carcinoma types and may aid to categorise tumours in the setting of possible future COL11A1-related therapies.
Journal • Pan tumor
|
COL1A1 (Collagen, type I, alpha 1)
11ms
Immunological and biological dissection of normal and tumoral salivary glands. (PubMed, Int Rev Immunol)
Chemokines and chemokine receptors have influential roles on aggressive behaviors of SGTs, and thereby they could be candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy. To present a broad knowledge on salivary glands, this review first provides a brief description on immunological functions of normal salivary glands, and then describe the SGT's tumor microenvironment, by focusing on mesenchymal stem cells, immune cell subsets, immune checkpoint molecules, chemokines and chemokine receptors, and finally introduces immune checkpoint inhibitors as well as potential targets for cancer therapy.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
LAG3 (Lymphocyte Activating 3)
|
LAG3 expression
11ms
Characterization of an ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement with unusual, but highly significant FISH signal pattern in a secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland: a case report. (PubMed, Diagn Pathol)
Our findings underline the importance to be aware of non-canonical signal patterns during FISH analysis for detection of NTRK rearrangements. Very faint single 3' signals can indicate a functional NTRK rearrangement and therefore be of high predictive value.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • NTRK2 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK1 fusion • NTRK2 fusion • NTRK expression • NTRK fusion
|
Vitrakvi (larotrectinib) • Rozlytrek (entrectinib)
11ms
Mutational landscape of primary pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors through targeted next-generation sequencing. (PubMed, Lung Cancer)
These results explain PSGTs harbor distinct driver features of MAML2 or MYB rearrangement, accompanied with wide mutational diversity with very low rate of somatic mutation. Several important pathways, including the NOTCH and PI3K pathways, and chromatin remodeling could be targeted to improve the survival in patients with ACC.
Journal • Next-generation sequencing • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • FGFR1 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • ASXL1 (ASXL Transcriptional Regulator 1) • PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) • KMT2A (Lysine Methyltransferase 2A) • FLT1 (Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1) • RBM10 (RNA Binding Motif Protein 10) • PTPRD (Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D) • INPP4B (Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type II B) • FOXP1 • NOTCH4 (Notch 4) • CCND2 (Cyclin D2) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
ASXL1 mutation • FGFR1 mutation • HRAS mutation • PTPRD mutation
11ms
[VIRTUAL] Warthin-like mucoepidermoid carcinoma - a morphologic spectrum: report of 3 cases with histological and cytological findings and review of the literature (ECP 2021)
Differentiating WT-like MECs from ordinary WTs may be challenging. On one end of the spectrum they may look very much like WT, on the other end, even though usual MEC features are present, still WT-like appearance may pose diagnostic difficulty. Showing MAML2 rearrangement in these cases is very helpful.
Clinical • Review
|
MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
11ms
MAML2 gene rearrangement, fusion patterns and clinicopathological characteristics in primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PubMed, Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi)
RNAseq confirms that CRTC1/3-MAML2 is the main fusion pattern in PMEC, suggesting that MAML2 fusion transcription may be an important driving factor of PMEC. MAML2 rearrangement/fusion and related clinicopathological characteristics are associated with good prognosis.
Clinical • Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
11ms
Secretory carcinoma of salivary gland: a clinicopathological and prognostic analysis of twelve cases (PubMed, Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi)
In molecular detection, 11 cases had ETV6 gene break/fusion. SCSG is a relatively rare low-grade malignant salivary gland tumor, with typical histological morphology and immunophenotype, Pan-Trk immunohistochemistry may be related to NTRK fusion, ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangement is not only of diagnostic significance, but also Trk-targeted therapy is expected to play a greater role in clinical treatment.
Clinical • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • NTRK fusion
11ms
Malignant salivary gland tumours in families with breast cancer susceptibility. (PubMed, Virchows Arch)
Loss of heterozygosity of BRCA wild-type alleles was assessed in the patients' tumour DNA. We conclude that our observations support the hypothesis that genetic factors associated with BC susceptibility might play a role also in at least a subset of SGCs.
Journal • BRCA Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • BRCA (Breast cancer early onset)
|
BRCA1 mutation • BRCA mutation
11ms
[VIRTUAL] Targeting cancer stem cells with mTOR inhibitors in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (AHNS 2021)
Materials and Methods The effect of an mTOR inhibitor (temsirolimus) on resistance of MEC CSCs to cisplatin was evaluated in a panel of human MEC cell lines (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B), and using a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of MEC (UM-HMC-PDX-18). Nakano); Soda Toyoji Memorial Foundation (T. Nakano).
CD44 • BMI1 (BMI1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger)
|
BMI1 expression
|
cisplatin • Torisel (temsirolimus)
11ms
[VIRTUAL] Secretory Carcinoma; Review of 10 Years World-wide Experience and Meta-analysis (AHNS 2021)
Secretory Carcinoma is a rare and relatively newly defined entity. The majority of patients are diagnosed at an early stage, without regional or distant disease, and perineural invasion is uncommon. About a third of the patients receive adjuvant radiotherapy and the prognosis is relatively good, with a recurrence rate of 19.5% and disease-related mortality of 17.8%.
Retrospective data • Review
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
11ms
[VIRTUAL] Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Advanced or Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma: A Systematic Review (AHNS 2021)
Existing data for the use of ADT in advanced SGC is promising. Further optimization and standardization of protocols is needed, ideally in the form of prospective controlled trials.
Review
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive
11ms
Treatment response to eribulin and anlotinib in lung metastases from rare perianal adenoid cystic carcinoma: a case report. (PubMed, Anticancer Drugs)
Combined chemotherapy with doxorubicin, carboplatin and cyclophosphamide was applied for two cycles but ineffective. At recent follow-ups, MRI and CT examinations revealed the diminishing perianal and pulmonary lesions. This study presented the first case of perianal ACC with multiple pulmonary metastases and particular BCOR mutations, who presented a durable response to eribulin and anlotinib, providing a potential therapeutic option for advanced refractory ACC.
Clinical • Journal
|
BCL6 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6) • BCOR (BCL6 Corepressor) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B)
|
BCOR mutation
|
carboplatin • Focus V (anlotinib) • doxorubicin hydrochloride • Halaven (eribulin mesylate)
11ms
Wnt Family Member 9b (Wnt9b) Is a New Sensitive and Specific Marker for Breast Cancer. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
For nonbreast tumors, including 64 cases of urothelial carcinoma, Wnt9b was negative in all except salivary gland carcinomas. The study demonstrated that Wnt9b is a breast cancer marker with similar sensitivity as GATA3 but with greater specificity than GATA3 and may ultimately become a useful diagnostic tool in routine surgical pathology practice.
Journal
|
ER (Estrogen receptor) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
11ms
HMGA2-WIF1 Rearrangements Characterize a Distinctive Subset of Salivary Pleomorphic Adenomas With Prominent Trabecular (Canalicular Adenoma-like) Morphology. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
Our data confirm that canalicular adenomas in major salivary glands (either monomorphic or part of hybrid tumors) are distinct from canalicular adenoma of minor salivary glands. Their uniform genotype irrespective of presence or absence of a conventional PA component argues for classifying those tumors lacking a conventional PA component as "monomorphic variants of PA" rather than canalicular/basal cell adenomas, intercalated duct adenoma, trabecular myoepithelioma or true hybrid tumors.
Journal
|
FGFR1 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) • CTNNB1 (Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • LIFR (LIF Receptor Subunit Alpha) • VIM (Vimentin) • MUC4 (Mucin 4, Cell Surface Associated) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • WIF1 (WNT Inhibitory Factor 1) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
|
FGFR1 fusion • VIM expression
11ms
Predictive and Prognostic Biomarker Identification in a Large Cohort of Androgen Receptor-Positive Salivary Duct Carcinoma Patients Scheduled for Combined Androgen Blockade. (PubMed, Cancers (Basel))
mRNA from 76 R/M androgen receptor (AR)-positive SDC patients treated with leuprorelin acetate combined with bicalutamide was extracted from pre-treatment tumor specimens...SRD5A1 expression can identify patients that will and AR PAS patients that will not experience clinical benefit (85.7% and 93.3% for PPV and NPV, respectively). The predictive potential of SRD5A1 expression forms a rational basis for including SRD5A1-inhibitors in SDC patients' treatment.
Clinical • Journal
|
ER (Estrogen receptor) • AR (Androgen receptor) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1)
|
AR positive
|
bicalutamide
11ms
Enrollment open
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • pemetrexed
12ms
Some Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Breast Share PLAG1 Rearrangements with the Analogous Tumor of the Salivary Glands. (PubMed, Histopathology)
Breast PA is rare, but it is an important differential diagnosis of breast pathology with the potential to develop carcinoma ex PA. We reported a novel TRPS1-PLAG1 fusion gene in breast PA.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2) • TRPS1 (Transcriptional Repressor GATA Binding 1)
12ms
Genomic context of NTRK1/2/3 fusion-positive tumours from a large real-world population. (PubMed, NPJ Precis Oncol)
We investigated the prevalence and concomitant genomic landscape of NTRK fusions, predicted patient ancestry and compared the FoundationCORE cohort with entrectinib clinical trial cohorts (ALKA-372-001 [EudraCT 2012-000148-88]; STARTRK-1 [NCT02097810]; STARTRK-2 [NCT02568267])...NTRK gene fusion prevalence varied greatly by age, cancer type and histology. Interrogating large datasets drives better understanding of the characteristics of very rare molecular subgroups of cancer and allows identification of genomic patterns and previously unreported fusion partners not evident in smaller datasets.
Clinical • Journal • Real-world evidence
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • MSI (Microsatellite instability) • NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
BRAF mutation • NTRK1 fusion • NTRK3 fusion • NTRK2 fusion • NTRK1 positive • NTRK positive • NTRK fusion
|
Rozlytrek (entrectinib)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] ACE1702, a first-in-class, off-the-shelf, selected natural killer cell [oNK] product using antibody cell conjugation technology [ACC], with pre-clinical and early clinical activity in HER2 < 3+ tumors (ESMO 2021)
In pre-clinical studies, ACE1702 exhibited cancer-specific cytotoxicity and superior potency against low HER2 tumors. Preliminary data in pts showed no CRS, GvHD, or DLTs through doses of 3B cells/cycle and antitumor activity in a HER2 < 3+ tumor. Dose escalation continues up to 15B cells/cycle with updated clinical data to be provided.
Preclinical
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • IFNG (Interferon, gamma) • IL6 (Interleukin 6) • IL10 (Interleukin 10)
|
ACE1702
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Case series of docetaxel, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab (DTP) and subsequent ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for recurrent or metastatic (R/M) HER2-positive salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) (ESMO 2021)
In R/M HER2-positive SDC patients DTP followed by T-DM1 upon progression are promising treatment strategies, leading to responses in the majority of the patients at an acceptable toxicity profile. The median OS was not reached after a median follow-up of 15.4 months.
Clinical
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • AR (Androgen receptor)
|
HER-2 positive • AR positive
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • docetaxel • Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) • Perjeta (pertuzumab)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] Phase II study of PI3K inhibitor copanlisib in cancer patients with deleterious PTEN mutations and retained PTEN protein expression: Results from the NCI-MATCH Trial (EAY131) sub-protocol Z1H (ESMO 2021)
of arm Z1H of the NCI-MATCH trial demonstrated that single agent copanlisib has limited activity in cancers with deleterious PTEN mutation without loss of expression.
Clinical • P2 data
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog)
|
TP53 mutation • PTEN deletion • PTEN mutation • PTEN expression • PTEN mutation + TP53 mutation
|
Aliqopa (copanlisib)
12ms
[VIRTUAL] First-results of the CLIMB360 study, a prospective molecular screening program across multiple cancer types based on circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (ESMO 2021)
Real-time and prospective genomic profiling of pts with advanced cancer using ctDNA is feasible, fast and helps to identify therapeutic targets approved or evaluated in clinical trials.
Clinical • MSi-H Biomarker • Circulating tumor DNA
|
MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
MSI-H/dMMR
|
Guardant360® CDx
12ms
iPRIME: Pembrolizumab With Chemotherapy for Poorly Chemo-responsive Thyroid and Salivary Gland Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=46, Recruiting, University of Chicago | Trial primary completion date: Jun 2021 --> Sep 2021
Trial primary completion date
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • docetaxel
12ms
9-ING-41 Plus Carboplatin in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=40, Not yet recruiting, Actuate Therapeutics Inc. | Initiation date: Jun 2021 --> Sep 2021
Clinical • Trial initiation date
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2)
|
carboplatin • elraglusib (9-ING-41)
12ms
Expression of Transcription Factor CREM in Human Tissues. (PubMed, J Histochem Cytochem)
A transcriptomic analysis of normal tissues and cancer showed that transcription of CREM can be altered in tumors, suggesting that also wild-type CREM may be involved in cancer biology. The wide expression of CREM protein in normal human tissues and cancer may limit the utility of immunohistochemistry for identification of tumors with CREM fusions.
Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1)
12ms
An Underappreciated Cytomorphological Feature of Secretory Carcinoma of Salivary Gland on Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy: Case Report with Literature Review. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
In this article, we review the literature pertaining to SC cytomorphology and we report a fine needle aspiration biopsy case of SC in salivary gland showing well-defined intracytoplasmic hyaline globules, a feature that has not been previously reported. This novel cytomorphological feature may be helpful in distinguishing the tumor cells of SC from histiocytes and from other low-grade salivary gland tumors.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
12ms
HER-2 Neu gene: A valuable therapeutic target in metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, J Oncol Pharm Pract)
The metastatic MEC in our patient overexpressed HER-2 Neu. Owing to Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab response, Trastuzumab emtansine (TDM-1) was initiated on a compassionate basis which further extended the survival but had to be terminated owing to adverse effects. Given the paucity of data on targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic SGNs and the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of TDM-1 therapy among the elderly, further studies are warranted to answer these important questions and to identify eligible patients for this novel treatment option.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 overexpression
|
Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) • Perjeta (pertuzumab)
12ms
HER2 Positivity in Histological Subtypes of Salivary Gland Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (PubMed, Front Oncol)
Estimates for five additional subtypes were assessed. Prevalence of HER 2 positivity in SGC varies greatly based on histological subtype, with SDC, CEP, SCC, and ADC displaying the highest rates.
Retrospective data • Review
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive
12ms
Clear Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity with Three Novel Types of EWSR1-ATF1 Translocation: A Case Report. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Herein, we report an interesting case of CCC harboring three EWSR1-ATF1 translocations: EWSR1 exon 8-ATF1 exon 4, EWSR1 exon 7-ATF1 exon 4, and EWSR1 exon 7-ATF1 exon 5. This case indicates the possibility of independent EWSR1-ATF1 gene translocations, and could provide insight into CCC tumorgenesis.
Clinical • Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1)
12ms
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revisited with special reference to histologic grading and CRTC1/3-MAML2 genotyping. (PubMed, Virchows Arch)
However, their significance regarding young age (≤ 30 years) and location-dependent heterogeneity of in particular G2-tumors is more questionable. We conclude that CRTC1/3-MAML2 testing is a useful adjunct to histologic scoring of MECs and for pinpointing tumors with poor prognosis with higher precision, thus avoiding overtreatment.
Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
12ms
Testing the Combination of Two Anti-cancer Drugs, DS-8201a and AZD6738, for The Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Expressing the HER2 Protein or Gene, The DASH Trial (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=15, Recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Not yet recruiting --> Recruiting | Trial completion date: Mar 2023 --> Mar 2026 | Trial primary completion date: Mar 2023 --> Mar 2026
Clinical • Enrollment open • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • Combination therapy
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 expression
|
Enhertu (fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki) • ceralasertib (AZD6738)
1year
Immunohistochemical expression of OCT4 and CD44 in major and minor salivary gland neoplasms. (PubMed, Braz Oral Res)
A significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.444 and p ≤ 0.001) was found between OCT4 and CD44 immunoexpression in the total sample. The high expression of OCT4 and CD44 may indicate that these proteins play an important role in identifying tumor stem cells.
Journal
|
CD44 • POU5F1 (POU Class 5 Homeobox 1)
|
CD44 expression • POU5F1 expression
1year
Metastatic malignant melanoma mimicking a salivary gland basaloid neoplasm after treatment with nivolumab. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
Nivolumab was then stopped, Dabrafenib/Trametinib were started, and the patient underwent excision of the nodules. This report emphasizes that melanoma involving the parotid gland region has the potential to be misdiagnosed by FNA as a salivary gland neoplasm because of overlapping cytologic features and immunophenotypes. This pitfall is avoided by careful morphologic analysis and judicious use of ancillary studies.
Journal
|
SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • MITF (Melanocyte Inducing Transcription Factor) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Mekinist (trametinib) • Tafinlar (dabrafenib)
1year
Targeted RNA Sequencing in the Routine Clinical Detection of Fusion Genes in Salivary Gland Tumors. (PubMed, Genes Chromosomes Cancer)
Finally, as anticipated, gene fusions were not detected in any of the five acinic cell carcinomas included in the cohort. In summary, targeted RNA sequencing represents a diagnostically useful ancillary technique for identifying a variety of existing, and novel, fusion transcripts in the classification of salivary gland neoplasms.
Clinical • Journal
|
NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2) • HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
1year
Expression of PLAG1, HMGA1 and HMGA2 in minor salivary glands tumours. (PubMed, Gland Surg)
In this study we assessed the diagnostic role of PLAG1, HMGA1 and HMGA2 immunohistochemical analysis. The score panel facilitate histopathological diagnosis of these rare tumours, helping to distinguish benign tumours from malignant ones and ameliorating the differential diagnosis of specific histotypes.
Journal
|
HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
1year
Degenerative nuclear atypia in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands: Histological and immunohistochemical observations. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
Degenerative nuclear atypia in PA seems rare, associated with non-cycling, non-luminal cells of myomatous ('myoepithelial') or schwannomatous phenotype and not related to malignant transformation. The particular phenotype of the affected cells suggests similarities to the degenerative nuclear atypia in pleomorphic leiomyoma and ancient schwannoma.
Journal
|
WT1 (WT1 Transcription Factor) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
1year
YATAGARASU: A Study of Apalutamide Combined With GnRH Agonist in Participants With Androgen Receptor Positive Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=31, Active, not recruiting, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K. | Trial completion date: Jul 2021 --> Oct 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Combination therapy
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive • AR expression
|
Erleada (apalutamide) • goserelin acetate
1year
PSMA radioligand therapy for solid tumors other than prostate cancer: background, opportunities, challenges, and first clinical reports. (PubMed, Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging)
An overview of the (pre)clinical data on PSMA immunohistochemistry and PSMA PET/CT imaging is provided and summarized. Furthermore, the first clinical reports of non-prostate cancer patients treated with PSMA-RLT are described.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
FOLH1 (Folate hydrolase 1)
|
FOLH1 expression
1year
Expressions of CXCL12, CXCL10 and CCL18 in Warthin tumors characterized pathologically by having a lymphoid stroma with germinal centers. (PubMed, Histol Histopathol)
Finding CXCL12 and CXCL10 expressions indicate that these chemokines may play a part in the formation of a lymphoid stroma within Warthin tumors. In regards to this phenomenon, the participation of CCL18 might be restrictive compared to CXCL12 and CXCL10.
Journal
|
CXCL10 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10) • CXCL12 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 12)
1year
Myoepithelial Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma: A Rare Pathology Misdiagnosed as Pleomorphic Adenoma; With a Novel TERT Promoter Mutation and High PD-L1 Expression. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
This case highlights importance of recognizing the subtle malignant features of MECA in distinguishing it from benign mimics like PA. In addition, presence of TERT mutation opens a new arena for future research to explore potential treatment targets.
Journal • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • TERT (Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 overexpression • TERT promoter mutation • TERT mutation
1year
Mammary Lobular Carcinoma-Like Salivary Gland Carcinoma: Report of a Rare Case. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
The patient was treated with surgical resection, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Currently, he is alive with disease twenty months after disease onset.
Clinical • Journal • IO biomarker
|
CDH1 (Cadherin 1) • CTNNA1 (Catenin Alpha 1)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Topics for discussion (ASCO 2021)
Risk factors (e.g., tobacco/alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental pollutants) for the development of head and neck cancer Diagnosis, screening and prevention strategies in SCCHN; molecular biomarkers and key pathways in the development and progression of SCCHN Clinical factors (e.g., pre-existing comorbidities, performance status and pathologic features) to consider when designing a therapeutic plan for patients with SCCHN Role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of head and neck cancers; impact of HPV status on the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in SCCHN Factors guiding the selection of therapy for patients with SCCHN; influence of prior treatment, time since completion of definitive treatment, age, symptomatology, extent of metastases and PD-L1 expression status in the choice of treatment regimen Clinical role of concurrent and/or induction chemotherapy with radiation therapy for patients presenting with locoregional SCCHN Published research data with and current clinical role of cetuximab for patients with localized, recurrent or metastatic SCCHN; role of EGFR targeted therapies in the era of immunotherapy Prevalence and clinical implications of EGFR mutations in progressive SCCHN; recent FDA approval of a new dosage regimen for cetuximab Spectrum, frequency and severity of toxicities observed with cetuximab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy; strategies to mitigate the associated side-effects Clinical utility of microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and PD-L1 status determinations using the tumor proportion score (TPS) and/or the combined positive score (CPS) for patients with SCCHN; similarities and differences in the available PD-L1 assay platforms Key efficacy and safety results supporting the FDA approval of pembrolizumab as first-line therapy in the Phase III KEYNOTE-048 trial for recurrent or metastatic SCCHN Optimal management of disease that progresses on pembrolizumab when administered as first-line therapy either alone or in combination with chemotherapy for patients with PD-L1-positive SCCHN Research databases supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients SCCHN; identification of patients with SCCHN who are ineligible for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy Mechanism of action of and emerging results with camrelizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancers Results from the Phase III KESTREL and EAGLE trials of the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab with or without tremelimumab versus standard of care treatment for patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN Biologic rationale for the investigation of bempegaldesleukin in combination with pembrolizumab in a Phase II/III trial for patients with head and neck cancer whose tumors express PD-L1 CPS or 1 or more Updated results from the Phase III JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 study of avelumab in addition to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus CRT alone for untreated locally advanced SCCHN; recommendations for study termination Recognition, incidence, monitoring and optimal management of immune-related adverse events in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy Mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibition and immune checkpoint inhibition in SCCHN Mechanism of action of tipifarnib and published data with this agent in the Phase II RUN-HN trial in the cohort of patients with HRAS-mutant recurrent and/or metastatic SCCHN after disease progression on platinum-based chemotherapy; recent FDA breakthrough therapy designation Role of entrectinib and Larotrectinib in patients with NTRK gene fusion-positive salivary gland carcinomas Mechanism of action and rationale for the ongoing investigation of xevinapant in the Phase III TrilynX study for previously untreated high-risk locally advanced SCCHN
PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
MSI (Microsatellite instability) • HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
PD-L1 expression • EGFR mutation • HRAS mutation • NTRK fusion
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • Erbitux (cetuximab) • Vitrakvi (larotrectinib) • Imfinzi (durvalumab) • Rozlytrek (entrectinib) • Bavencio (avelumab) • AiRuiKa (camrelizumab) • tremelimumab (CP-675206) • Zarnestra (tipifarnib) • bempegaldesleukin (NKTR-214) • xevinapant (AT-406)
1year
PAX-8 Expression in Salivary Duct Carcinoma. (PubMed, Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol)
Therefore, we conclude that although the majority of SDC are negative for PAX-8, rare diffuse positivity can be seen in these primary salivary gland tumors. This could potentially pose difficulty in ruling out metastatic disease from another PAX-8-positive primary neoplasm.
Journal
|
AR (Androgen receptor) • PAX8 (Paired box 8)
|
AR expression • PAX8 positive
1year
Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Salivary Glands. (PubMed, Oncology)
CD-44 and ALDH-1 may be useful in differentiating between primary SCCs and metastatic disease. BMI-1 and SOX-2 are correlated with poorer prognosis.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
CD44 • SOX2 • ALDH1A1 (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1) • BMI1 (BMI1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger) • VIM (Vimentin)
|
BMI1 expression • VIM expression
1year
Study of Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Salivary Gland Cancer (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=64, Active, not recruiting, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Trial completion date: May 2021 --> May 2022 | Trial primary completion date: May 2021 --> May 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
Opdivo (nivolumab) • Yervoy (ipilimumab)
1year
Oncocytic Lipoadenoma: Report of 3 Rare Cases Involving the Parotid Gland, Including a Synchronous Presentation With Paraganglioma of the Right Carotid Bifurcation and Literature Review. (PubMed, Int J Surg Pathol)
Despite distinctive morphologic features, OL is often misdiagnosed, given its rarity. We hope to contribute to surgeons' and pathologists' awareness and knowledge regarding the existence of this tumor and provide adequate management through conservative surgical excision.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
CEACAM5 (CEA Cell Adhesion Molecule 5) • VIM (Vimentin) • KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
1year
Clinical • New trial
|
CD24 (CD24 Molecule)
|
CD24 expression
1year
Whole-genome Sequencing of Common Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Subtype Restricted and Shared Genetic Alterations. (PubMed, Clin Cancer Res)
This study delineates type-specific and shared genetic alterations that are associated with early phenotypic commitment and the biologic progression of common SGCs. These alterations, upon validation, could serve as biomarkers in tumor-specific clinical trials.
Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1) • CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
TP53 mutation • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 mutation • BAP1 mutation • CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
1year
High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance. (PubMed, Adv Anat Pathol)
HGT of salivary gland carcinoma can occur either at initial presentation or less commonly at the time of recurrence, sometimes following postoperative radiotherapy. The potential for HGT in almost any type of salivary gland carcinoma warrants a thorough sampling of all salivary gland malignancies to prevent oversight of a HG component.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 amplification • HER-2 overexpression
1year
New P2 trial
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1)
|
Keytruda (pembrolizumab) • pemetrexed
1year
A rare case of high-grade intraductal carcinoma of the upper lip: immunohistochemical and genetic analyses. (PubMed, Med Mol Morphol)
IDC of the minor salivary glands is exceedingly rare. We discuss diagnostic problems associated with minor salivary gland lesions, and the "basal-like" phenotype of this case.
Clinical • Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • AR (Androgen receptor) • NCOA4 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 4) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • KRT19 (Keratin 19) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
RET fusion • NCOA4-RET fusion
1year
High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance. (PubMed, Adv Anat Pathol)
HGT of salivary gland carcinoma can occur either at initial presentation or less commonly at the time of recurrence, sometimes following postoperative radiotherapy. The potential for HGT in almost any type of salivary gland carcinoma warrants a thorough sampling of all salivary gland malignancies to prevent oversight of a HG component.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 amplification • HER-2 overexpression
1year
Intraductal Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland with NCOA4-RET: Expanding the Morphologic Spectrum and an Algorithmic Diagnostic Approach. (PubMed, Hum Pathol)
Typically regarded to have ETV6-NTRK3 fusions, secretory carcinomas may alternatively arise with RET fusions as well. Adding our cohort of 6 NCOA4-RET fusion-positive IC compared with 4 cases of secretory carcinoma with ETV6-RET fusions and a single case of fusion-negative IC with salivary duct carcinoma-like genetics, we propose a diagnostic algorithm that integrates histological elements, including atypia and invasiveness, and the likelihood of specific molecular alterations to increase diagnostic accuracy in what can be a very subtle diagnosis with important clinical implications.
Journal
|
RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NCOA4 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 4) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10)
|
NTRK3 fusion • RET fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion • RET rearrangement • NCOA4-RET fusion • RET positive
1year
Updates in the molecular pathology of non-small cell lung cancer. (PubMed, Semin Diagn Pathol)
Finally, specific molecular pathological alterations define some rarer subtypes of NSCLC such as salivary gland tumours, NUT carcinoma and SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumour, and an understanding of the molecular pathology is important for their accurate diagnosis. In this review, the molecular pathology of NSCLC is discussed with a focus on clinically relevant molecular alterations.
Review • Journal
|
EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor) • HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase) • ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase) • ROS1 (Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ROS) • SMARCA4 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 4) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
EGFR mutation • BRAF mutation • ROS1 fusion • ALK-ROS1 fusion
1year
Microsecretory Adenocarcinoma of Salivary Glands: An Expanded Series of 24 Cases. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
MSA is a distinct salivary gland neoplasm with remarkably consistent clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features that generally behaves in an indolent manner following surgery alone. These observations solidify MSA as a unique, low-grade salivary gland carcinoma that warrants inclusion in the next version of the WHO classification of head and neck tumors.
Clinical • Journal
|
SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • MEF2C (Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C) • SS18 (SS18 Subunit Of BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complex) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
1year
NISCAHN: Nivolumab in Recurrent or Metastatic Salivary Gland Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=98, Active, not recruiting, UNICANCER | Trial completion date: Mar 2024 --> Oct 2021
Clinical • Trial completion date • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2)
|
Opdivo (nivolumab)
1year
Clinicopathological features and prognosis of nodal nevi (PubMed, Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi)
The morphology of bland nevus cells in capsule and trabeculae is a valuable clue. Besides, immunohistochemical profiling and FISH assay are helpful in the differential diagnosis.
Clinical • Retrospective data • Journal
|
CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10)
1year
NR4A3 (NOR-1) Immunostaining Shows Better Performance than DOG1 Immunostaining in Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Gland: a Preliminary Study. (PubMed, J Oral Maxillofac Res)
Moreover, only 3 (50%) cases showed complete membranous staining with DOG1. This pilot study showed that nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 immunostaining is a sensitive marker for acinic cell carcinoma and of better utility than discovered on GIST-1 immunostaining in making a diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma.
Journal
|
NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3)
1year
Identification and characterization of primary cilia-positive salivary gland tumours exhibiting basaloid/myoepithelial differentiation. (PubMed, J Pathol)
Finally, we identified tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) as being possibly involved in the production of PC in SGTs. Taken together, our findings indicate that SGTs that exhibit basaloid/myoepithelial differentiation (PA, BCA, AdCC, and BCAc) are ciliated, and their PC exhibit tumour-specific characteristics, are involved in activation of the hedgehog pathway, and are associated with TTBK2 upregulation, providing a significant and important link between SGT tumourigenesis and PC.
Journal
|
GLI1 (GLI Family Zinc Finger 1)
|
GLI1 expression
1year
Fas-Fas Ligand Interplay in the Periphery of Salivary Gland Carcinomas as a New Checkpoint Predictor for Disease Severity and Immunotherapy Response. (PubMed, Biomedicines)
On the contrary, a loss of Fas-expressing TIICs with increasing tumor stage was found in the tumor periphery, whereas FasL expression in tumor cells in the tumor periphery correlated with tumor stage. These data suggest that SGC cells are resistant to FasL-induced apoptosis by TIICs but could utilize FasL to eliminate these cells in high-stage tumors to provide resistance to immunotherapy.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
FAS (Fas cell surface death receptor) • FASLG (Fas ligand)
1year
DUET-2: A Study of XmAb®20717 in Subjects With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=154, Recruiting, Xencor, Inc. | Trial completion date: Mar 2021 --> Feb 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2020 --> Feb 2022
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • MSI (Microsatellite instability)
|
MSI-H/dMMR • HER-2 negative
|
vudalimab (XmAb717)
1year
[VIRTUAL] Safety and unique pharmacokinetic profile of ARX788, a site-specific ADC, in heavily pretreated patients with HER2-overexpresing solid tumors: Results from two phase 1 clinical trials. (ASCO 2021)
ARX788 demonstrated promising activity in HER2-positive, HER2-low, and T-DM1 resistant tumors in preclinical studies . High stability of ARX788 and low serum exposure of pAF-AS269 may underlie the low systemic toxicity, which differentiates it from other ADCs.
Clinical • P1 data • PK/PD data
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
|
HER-2 positive
|
Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) • ARX788
1year
Pan-TRK Immunohistochemistry Is Highly Correlated With NTRK3 Gene Rearrangements in Salivary Gland Tumors. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
The lack of pan-TRK immunoreactivity in a subset of SCs is suggestive of atypical exons 4 to 14 or exons 5 to 14 ETV6-NTRK3 fusion or non-NTRK alternative fusion partners such as ETV6-RET. Pan-TRK staining can serve as a strong diagnostic marker to distinguish SC from it mimics and to select patients eligible for TRK inhibitor clinical trials.
Journal
|
RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
NTRK3 fusion • RET fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
1year
Utility of an immunocytochemical analysis for pan-Trk in the cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
The immunocytochemical analyses clearly demonstrated that all eight specimens showed positive nuclear staining for pan-Trk, but were negative for NR4A3 expression. Although all cases of SC do not always show positive immunoreactivity for pan-Trk, immunocytochemical analysis for pan-Trk may be useful for the cytodiagnosis of SC along with assessment of the characteristic cytological features.
Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
1year
Trophoblast Cell Surface Antigen 2 (Trop-2) Protein is Highly Expressed in Salivary Gland Carcinomas and Represents a Potential Therapeutic Target. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
This is the first study to demonstrate that several types of SGC express Trop-2 with variable intensity. Since there are currently few systemic treatment options for advanced SGCs, Trop-2 represents a promising target for further clinical studies, for instance, with sacituzumab govitecan.
Journal
|
TROP2 (Trophoblast Cell Surface Antigen 2)
|
Trodelvy (sacituzumab govitecan-hziy)
1year
YATAGARASU: A Study of Apalutamide Combined With GnRH Agonist in Participants With Androgen Receptor Positive Salivary Gland Carcinoma (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=31, Active, not recruiting, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K. | Trial primary completion date: Mar 2021 --> Jun 2021
Clinical • Trial primary completion date • Combination therapy
|
AR (Androgen receptor)
|
AR positive • AR expression
|
Erleada (apalutamide) • goserelin acetate
1year
SalvGlandDx - a comprehensive salivary gland neoplasm specific next generation sequencing panel to facilitate diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets. (PubMed, Neoplasia)
Further, a rare case of a SS18-ZBTB7A rearranged low-grade adenocarcinoma previously described as potential spectrum of microsecretory adenocarcinoma, is reported. In addition, features of six cases within the spectrum of polymorphous adenocarcinoma / cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland including PRKD1 p.E710D mutations and novel fusions involving PRKAR2A-PRKD1, SNX9-PRKD1 and ATL2-PRKD3, are described.
Journal • Next-generation sequencing
|
RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • NTRK2 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2) • NR4A3 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • NTRK (Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase) • SS18 (SS18 Subunit Of BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complex) • ZBTB7A (Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7A) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
NTRK2 fusion • RET fusion • MYB-NFIB fusion
1year
The spectrum of tumors harboring BAP1 gene alterations. (PubMed, Cancer Genet)
More same tissue tumors of squamous cell histology harbored BAP1 alterations than adenocarcinomas. The current study highlights tumor types that display higher than previously appreciated rates of somatic BAP1 genomic alterations.
Journal • BRCA Biomarker • PARP Biomarker
|
BRCA1 (Breast cancer 1, early onset) • BRCA2 (Breast cancer 2, early onset) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1)
|
BRCA1 mutation • BAP1 mutation
1year
ALK Rearrangements Characterize 2 Distinct Types of Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 4 Cases and Literature Review. (PubMed, Am J Surg Pathol)
Given the therapeutic relevance of ALK fusions, inclusion of ALK IHC in any atypical-looking or androgen-poor SDC and in high-grade adenocarcinoma-not otherwise specified is recommended. Absence of aberrant ALK expression in genetically characterized secretory (n=15) and intraductal (n=9) carcinomas lacking ALK fusions underlines the value of ALK IHC as a diagnostic screening method for identifying potential cases.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ALK (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase) • EML4 (EMAP Like 4) • AR (Androgen receptor) • STRN (Striatin) • NKX2-1 (NK2 Homeobox 1) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • MUC4 (Mucin 4, Cell Surface Associated) • NAPSA (Napsin A Aspartic Peptidase) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
ALK positive • HER-2 expression • ALK rearrangement • ALK fusion • AR expression
1year
The potential of somatostatin receptor 2 as a novel therapeutic target in salivary gland malignant tumors. (PubMed, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol)
This study confirms the expression of SSTR2 in glandular salivary carcinomas and an inverse correlation in expression levels between SSTR2 and Ki-67. This lays a foundation for novel treatment options in salivary metastatic cancers where SSTR2 may be a potential novel therapeutic target.
Retrospective data • Journal
|
SSTR (Somatostatin Receptor) • SSTR2 (Somatostatin Receptor 2)
1year
Immunohistochemical Expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) is Correlated to Tumor Aggressiveness and Cellular Differentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
Also, FASN expression was significantly higher in high-grade AdCC and MEC when compared to low-grade tumors (p < 0.05). We concluded that FASN expression was correlated to tumor aggressiveness and cellular differentiation in salivary gland carcinomas.
Journal
|
FAS (Fas cell surface death receptor) • FASN (Fatty acid synthase)
1year
Integrative sequencing discovers an ATF1-motif enriched molecular signature that differentiates hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma from mucoepidemoid carcinoma. (PubMed, Oral Oncol)
Collectively, our data identify an ATF1-motif enriched gene signature that may have clinical utility for molecular differentiation of HCCCs from other salivary gland tumors and discover potential actionable alterations that may benefit the clinical care of recurrent HCCC patients.
Journal
|
CXCR4 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4) • IGF1R (Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor 2) • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1)
|
IGF1R expression • IGF1 elevation
1year
Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of a Case With Immunohistochemical and Next-Generation Sequencing Studies. (PubMed, Int J Surg Pathol)
She was treated with neoadjuvant therapy (doxorubucin and cyclophosphamide) antenatally and paclitaxel in the postpartum period followed by left mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy...We retrospectively performed immunostains in the core biopsy specimen, which demonstrated GATA-3 and DOG-1 positivity. Next-generation sequencing of the postneoadjuvant specimen using a 70-gene panel revealed 2 single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutations: tumor protein 53 (TP53) (c.747G>T) SNV mutation and rearranged during transfection (RET) (c.2899G>A) SNV mutation.
Clinical • Journal • Next-generation sequencing
|
TP53 (Tumor protein P53) • RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
TP53 mutation
|
paclitaxel
1year
The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion is the major oncogenic driver in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (PubMed, JCI Insight)
Here, we show that doxycycline-induced CRTC1-MAML2 knockdown blocked the growth of established MEC xenografts, validating CRTC1-MAML2 as a therapeutic target. Cotargeting of aberrant p16-CDK4/6-RB signaling and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion-activated AREG/EGFR signaling with the respective CDK4/6 inhibitor Palbociclib and EGFR inhibitor Erlotinib produced enhanced antitumor responses in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, this study provides direct evidence for CRTC1-MAML2 as a key driver for MEC development and maintenance and identifies a potentially novel combination therapy with FDA-approved EGFR and CDK4/6 inhibitors as a potential viable strategy for patients with MEC.
Journal
|
CRTC1 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1) • MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
|
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion
|
erlotinib • Ibrance (palbociclib) • doxycycline
1year
Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands: report of three cases with special concern to the counterpart accompanied by eosinophilia. (PubMed, Med Mol Morphol)
The two SMCEs included dense aggregates of eosinophils as well as more prominent lymphoid infiltration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for MAML2 confirmed split signals in SMC, but not in SMCE.
Clinical • Journal
|
MAML2 (Mastermind Like Transcriptional Coactivator 2)
1year
Mast Cells and Proteins Related to Myofibroblast Differentiation (PAR-2, IL-6, and TGFβ1) in Salivary Cancers: A Preliminary Study. (PubMed, Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol)
When the density of mast cells, myofibroblasts and the expression of PAR-2 protein, IL-6, and TGFβ1 were compared, it was no statistically significant difference between tumors with and without myoepithelial differentiation. The results of present study suggest a possible participation of mast cells and especially of PAR-2 in the development and progression of malignant salivary cancers, regardless of myoepithelial content.
Journal
|
IL6 (Interleukin 6) • TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1)
1year
Clinical Significance of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC)-1, -2, -4 and -6 Expression in Salivary Gland Tumors. (PubMed, Diagnostics (Basel))
Additionally, a high HDAC-2 H-score was significantly associated with longer OS for HG malignant SGT patients (p = 0.027). In our study, HDAC-2 expression is a marker for good prognosis, whereas HDAC-6 expression indicated poor prognosis; thus, an inhibitor of HDAC-6 may be used to improve patients' survival.
Clinical • Journal • Epigenetic controller
|
HDAC2 (Histone deacetylase 2)
|
HDAC2 expression
1year
Genetic Drivers of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Aberrant Splicing Events, Mutational Burden, HPV Infection and Future Targets. (PubMed, Genes (Basel))
This review aims to describe changes in alternative splicing and ncRNA patterns that contribute to the development and progression of HNSCC. It will also review the use of the changes in gene expression as biomarkers or as the basis for the development of new therapies.
Review • Journal • Tumor Mutational Burden
|
TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden)
1year
The immunophenotype of epithelial to mesenchymal transition inducing transcription factors in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. (PubMed, Rom J Morphol Embryol)
Thus, tumors developed from the intraoral minor salivary glands, with solid pattern, perineural invasion, locally aggressive and with lymph node metastasis were the most reactive. Therefore, these transcription factors could be useful as prognostic biomarkers and efficient therapeutic targets in such salivary malignancies.
Journal
|
ZEB1 (Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 1)
1year
Clinical • New P2 trial
|
BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2)
|
carboplatin • elraglusib (9-ING-41)
over1year
Secretory carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland: An immunohistochemical study. (PubMed, Oral Oncol)
The myoepithelial markers showed positivity for residual cellsin hyalinized area, corresponding to residual Pleomorphic adenoma (PA). In view of these findings, the diagnosis of Secretory carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (SCXPA) was established.
Journal
|
PLIN2 (Perilipin)
over1year
Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical behavior of ductal carcinoma of the salivary and lacrimal gland in a Mexican Mestizo population. (PubMed, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol)
SDC is a rare entity and survival is very poor. It is histologically similar to ductal carcinoma of the breast. However, important differences exist that help to distinguish them in case of synchronous cancers. The clinical behavior of SDC seems to be more aggressive and IHC analysis is useful for designing therapies.
Clinical • Journal
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor) • AR (Androgen receptor) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • PAX8 (Paired box 8) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
over1year
Assessment Of Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes And Pd-l1 Expression In Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Of The Salivary Gland. (PubMed, Clin Invest Med)
There was no association between TIL expression and survival. These data suggest that PD-L1 and TIL expression are unlikely to be useful as predictive biomarkers for response to immunotherapy.
Journal • Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte • PD(L)-1 Biomarker • IO biomarker
|
PD-L1 (Programmed death ligand 1) • CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8)
|
PD-L1 expression • PD-L1 negative
over1year
Recent updates in salivary gland tumors of the lung. (PubMed, Semin Diagn Pathol)
Awareness of these tumors and knowledge of available ancillary studies to confirm the diagnosis is important to avoid misdiagnosis which might lead to differences in treatment, management, and prognosis. Further studies are needed to identify biomarkers to better predict patient's outcome and for individual management and treatment of patients.
Journal
|
EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1)
over1year
Clinical • Enrollment change • Pan tumor
|
NTRK1 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1) • ROS1 (Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ROS) • NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3)
|
ALK rearrangement • ROS1 rearrangement
|
Xalkori (crizotinib) • Rozlytrek (entrectinib)
over1year
Sialadenoma papilliferum: clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, molecular analyses of new five cases and review of the literature. (PubMed, Diagn Pathol)
For the first time, we have comprehensively aggregated and analyzed 90 cases sialadenoma papilliferum from almost all previous publications, and further explored the clinicopathological features of SP; concordantly, this study demonstrated that SP shows a papillomatous growth pattern with exophytic and endophytic proliferation of ductal epithelium composed of double-layered cells harboring BRAF V600E mutation. Additionly, adequate treatment for SP is surgical excision, with a favorable prognosis in patients.
Clinical • Review • Journal
|
BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
BRAF V600E • BRAF V600
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Patient-derived models of rare cancers in the National Cancer Institute’s patient-derived models repository (AACR 2021)
Also of clinical relevance, of two mesothelioma models available, one carries an NF2 driver mutation and the other BAP1 and LATS2 and a PDX model for Hurthle cell carcinoma has wide-spread loss of heterozygosity (LOH 80%). Models for other rare cancers are in development, including four cholangiocarcinoma PDXs with histopathologic confirmation that are currently being expanded for molecular characterization and distribution.
Clinical
|
CDKN2A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) • NF1 (Neurofibromin 1) • BAP1 (BRCA1 Associated Protein 1) • EWSR1 (EWS RNA Binding Protein 1) • FLI1 (Fli-1 Proto-Oncogene ETS Transcription Factor) • STAT6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6)
|
CDKN2A deletion • NF1 mutation • BAP1 mutation • EWSR1-FLI1 fusion
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Establishment of clinically and genetically well-annotated patient-derived xenografts of adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation (AACR 2021)
Further, chemotherapy (carboplatin/paclitaxel) was conducted on the PDX model. All three PDX models had histopathological features similar to those of the original tumors, and retained the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. We successfully established PDX models of adenoid cystic carcinoma, including an HGT model, which was characterized by detailed clinical and genomic information. Tumors that show HGT characteristics may be drug-sensitive, and can be used in the development of personalized cancer treatments.
Clinical
|
KIT (KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) • TP63 (Tumor protein 63)
|
MYB-NFIB fusion
|
carboplatin • paclitaxel
over1year
BOC-PLAG1, a new fusion gene of pleomorphic adenoma: Identified in a fine-needle aspirate by RNA next-generation sequencing. (PubMed, Diagn Cytopathol)
To our knowledge, this is the first reported PA bearing BOC-PLAG1. RNA next-generation sequencing performed on cytology specimens can be helpful in achieving a more specific diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.
Journal • Next-generation sequencing
|
HMGA2 (High mobility group AT-hook 2)
over1year
Cabo ASAP: Cabozantinib in Advanced Salivary Gland Cancer Patients (clinicaltrials.gov)
P2, N=25, Terminated, Radboud University | Active, not recruiting --> Terminated; safety issues
Clinical • Trial termination
|
MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase)
|
MET positive
|
Cabometyx (cabozantinib tablet)
over1year
[VIRTUAL] Nursing Consideration in Salivary Gland Cancer (SGC) Patients Receiving Targeted Therapy in the new era of Molecular Profiling: What is the Current Update? (ONS 2021)
Patients with advanced SGC can participate in several clinical trials studying various targeted agents such as pertuzumab and trastuzumab with HER2 alteration, vismodegib with PTCH-1/SMO mutation, vemurafenib with BRAF V600 mutation, or atezolizumab with high tumor mutational burden (TMB). Discussion & Innovation: Oncology nurses need to be cognizant of currently studied targeted agents used to treat SGC patients. As an increased number of patients are receiving novel targeted agent treatment, oncology nurses need to engage in collaborative groups to educate and improve management of adverse events.
Clinical • Tumor Mutational Burden • PD(L)-1 Biomarker
|
HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • BRAF (B-raf proto-oncogene) • TMB (Tumor Mutational Burden) • PTCH1 (Patched 1) • SMO (Smoothened Frizzled Class Receptor)
|
TMB-H • BRAF mutation • BRAF V600 • HER-2 mutation • PTCH1 mutation
|
Herceptin (trastuzumab) • Zelboraf (vemurafenib) • Tecentriq (atezolizumab) • Perjeta (pertuzumab) • Erivedge (vismodegib)
over1year
Secretory Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: A Retrospective Case Series with Review of Literature. (PubMed, Head Neck Pathol)
A judicious application of IHC staining would aid in diagnosis. SC should be considered in the differential diagnosis for intraoral salivary gland tumors.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3) • ETV6 (ETS Variant Transcription Factor 6) • SOX10 (SRY-Box 10) • GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3)
|
NTRK3 fusion • ETV6-NTRK3 fusion
over1year
Testing the Combination of Two Anti-cancer Drugs, DS-8201a and AZD6738, for The Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Expressing the HER2 Protein or Gene, The DASH Trial (clinicaltrials.gov)
P1, N=15, Not yet recruiting, National Cancer Institute (NCI) | Trial completion date: Mar 2022 --> Mar 2023 | Trial primary completion date: Mar 2022 --> Mar 2023
Clinical • Trial completion date • Trial primary completion date • Combination therapy
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 expression
|
Enhertu (fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki) • ceralasertib (AZD6738)
over1year
Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factors in malignant salivary gland neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed, Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal)
The immunohistochemical overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with salivary gland neoplasms has prognostic value and was associated with decreased survival time. However, more primary well-designed studies are necessary to increase the level of evidence.
Retrospective data • Review • Journal
|
VEGFA (Vascular endothelial growth factor A)
|
VEGFA expression
over1year
The potential role of follicular helper T cells and helper T cells type 1 in Warthin tumour. (PubMed, Pathol Res Pract)
We observed that Tfh were involved in the formation and maintenance of lymphoid follicles in WTs. In the cyst-type, Th2-dominant humoral immune responses were suppressed, and Th1-dominant cellular immune responses may have caused damage to tumour tissue.
Journal • IO biomarker
|
CD40LG (CD40 ligand)
over1year
CRTC1/MAML2 directs a PGC-1α-IGF-1 circuit that confers vulnerability to PPARγ inhibition. (PubMed, Cell Rep)
Furthermore, this dependence on autocrine regulation of IGF-1 transcription renders MEC cells susceptible to PPARγ inhibition with inverse agonists. These results yield insights into the aberrant coregulatory functions of C1/M2 and identify a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for precision therapy.
Journal
|
IGF1 (Insulin-like growth factor 1)
over1year
Clinical • Enrollment change • Combination therapy
|
CD4 (CD4 Molecule)
|
HER-2 positive • HER-2 amplification • HER-2 expression
|
Enhertu (fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki) • ceralasertib (AZD6738)